Promotion Mix Meaning, Factors Affecting and Elements | Principles of Marketing Notes CBCS Pattern | B.Com 5th Sem Hons

Promotion Mix 
Meaning, Factors Affecting and Elements
Principles of Marketing Notes CBCS Pattern
B.Com 5th Sem Hons

Promotion Mix Meaning

Promotion is an important part of marketing mix of a business enterprise. Once a product is developed, its price is determined the next problem comes to its sale i.e., creating demand for the product. It requires promotional activities. The activities are technique which bring the special characteristics of the product and of the producer to the knowledge of prospective customers. Promotion is a process of communication involving information, persuasion, and influence. 

The term ‘selling’ is often used synonymously with promotion. But promotion is wider that selling. Selling is concerned only with the transfer of title in goods to the purchaser, whereas promotion includes techniques stimulating demand. These techniques include advertising, salesmanship or personal selling and other methods of stimulation demand.

Factors affecting Promotion Mix

There are many factors which influence promotional mix and they are known as product market factors. 

1. Nature of the product: 

Different product requires different promotional mixes. Consumer goods and industrial goods require different strategies. Consumer goods are sold through advertising, personal selling and displays. But industrial good require more personal selling.

(a) Product complexity: If a product is technically sound and complex in nature then it requires personal selling. For example, Industrial products. On the other hand if the product is simple we can go for advertising. For example, most of the FMCG products.

(b) Brand differentiation: Promotional mix is affected by brand differentiation and the degree to which the brand is differentiated from competitor’s brand.

(c) Purchase frequency: If buyers buy frequently a product, such as soap, tooth paste etc. the marketer will invest a good amount on advertising to push competition brands.

2. Nature of the market: 

Different market requires different promotional mixes and strategies. In industrial market, advertising plays a more informative role then the persuasive role for industrial buyers. Personal selling emphasizes on two roles, i.e. information and persuasion in the industrial and consumer’s market.

3. Stage in the product life cycle: 

The promotional product mix varies within stage in the product life cycle. The nature of demand varies according to the stages in the life cycle. During the introductory stage, the customers do not realize the qualities of the product. Here, information about the product and its benefits are made known to the buyers. In this stage, more importance must be given to personal selling and trade shows. In the growth stage, customers know the qualities of the product. Hence to stimulate demand, advertising must be increased. In the maturity stage, sales and profits decline and hence all the promotional activities should be cut down.

4. Market penetration: 

Here the product is already known to the buyers. In that situation, a sustaining promotional strategy is suitable. A brand has insignificant market penetration means it has a small market or struggling market. Market size and location: Product’s market size and location also influences the promotional mix. In narrow market, where the numbers of potential buyers is small, direct mail is used. In a broad market advertising is used.

5. Characteristics of buyers: 

The characteristics of prospective buyers strongly influence the promotional mix. Experienced professional buyers such as industrial purchasing agents need personal selling. Inexperienced buyers need advertising. Some buyers give importance to time, some to purchase of products, buyers act according to the influence of friend, relatives etc.

6. Distribution strategy:

Companies fighting more through distribution for establishing their brands, invest more money on personal selling and advertising. Companies which have already established their brand in the market have to invest only a small amount in personal selling and advertising.

7. Pricing strategy: 

Pricing strategy influence the promotional mix strategy. If the brand is priced higher than the competition, more personal selling is needed to get a middleman to stock and push the brand. If the brand is priced lower, little promotion is needed.

Elements of Promotion Mix

There are four elements of promotion mix:

a) Advertising

Advertising is a non-personal presentation of goods, services or idea. In advertising existing and prospective customers are communicated the message through impersonal media like radio, T.V., newspapers and magazine. It involves transmission of standard message simultaneously to a large number of people. The message transmitted is known as advertising.

b) Personal Selling

Personal selling is the process of assisting and persuading the existing and prospective buyer to buy the goods or services in person. It involves direct and personal contact of the seller or his representative with the buyer.

c) Publicity

Publicity is a non-personal non-paid stimulation of demand of the product or services or business unit by planning commercially significant news about the services or business unit by planning commercially significant news about in the print media or by obtaining a favorable presentation of it upon radio, television or stage.

d) Sales promotion:

Sales promotion consists of all activities other than advertising, personal selling and publicity, which help in promoting sales of the product. Such activities are non-repetitive and one time offers. According to American Marketing Association, sales promotion include, “those marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as point of purchase displays, shows and exhibitions, demonstrations and various non-recurring selling efforts not in the ordinary routine.”

The main aim of sales promotion is to increase sales and profits of the firm but it is quite different from personal selling and advertising. In personal selling, customer is persuaded by a sales person face to face. Advertising is a non-personal mass communication media. Sales promotion, on the other hand, is a non-recurring and non-routine method. Its main aim is to supplement and coordinate the personal selling and advertising. It is a supporting and facilitating element of promotional strategy. Sales promotion bridges the gap of advertising and personal selling.

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