Financial Reporting By Banks, Insurance Companies and NBFCs, Financial Statements Analysis Notes

Financial Reporting by Banks, Insurance Companies and NBFCs
Financial Statements Analysis Notes
B.Com Notes 6th Sem CBCS Pattern

Unit – 4: Financial Reporting By Banks, Insurance Companies and NBFCs

Q. Give a brief note on IRDA’s Guidelines on accounting and auditing of Insurance Companies. 2014, 2016, 2018

Q. Give a brief note on suggestions made by the RBI’s Advisory group on accounting and auditing of Banks. 2015, 2017, 2019

Q. Give a brief note on suggestions made by the RBI’s Advisory group on accounting and auditing of NBFC and FIs. 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019



A banking company is defined as a company which transacts the business of banking in India. Section 5 (b) of The Banking Regulation Act, 1949 defines the term banking as “accepting for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdraw able by cheque, draft, order or otherwise.

Section – 7 of this Act makes it essential for every company carrying on the business of banking in India to use as part of its name at least one of the words – bank, banker, banking or banking company. Section 49A of the Act prohibits any institution other than banking companies to accept deposit money from public withdraw able by cheque. The essence of banking business is the function of accepting deposits from public with the facility of withdrawal of money by cheque. In other words, the combination of the functions of acceptance of public deposits and withdrawal of the money by cheque by any institution cannot be performed without the approval of Reserve Bank.

Features of Banking: The following are the basic characteristics to capture the essential features of Banking:

a)       Dealing in Money: The banks accept deposits from the public and advance the same as loans to the needy people. The deposits may be of different types – current, fixed, savings, etc. accounts. The deposits are accepted on various terms and conditions.

b)      Deposits must be withdraw able: The deposits (other than fixed deposits) made by the public can be withdraw able by cheques, draft or otherwise, i.e., the bank issue and pay cheques. The deposits are usually withdraw able on demand. 

c)       Dealing with credit: The banks are the institutions that can create credit i.e., creation of additional money for lending. Thus, “creation of credit” is the unique feature of banking.

d)      Commercial in nature: Since all the banking functions are carried on with the aim of making profit, it is regarded as a commercial institution.

e)      Nature of agent: Besides the basic function of accepting deposits and lending money as loans, bank possesses the character of an agent because of its various agency services.


There are various types of users of the financial statements of banks who need information about the financial position and performance of the banks. The financial statements are required to provide the information about the financial position and performance of the bank in making economic decisions by the users. The important information sought by these users are, about bank’s Liquidity and solvency and the risks related to the assets and liabilities recognized on its balance sheet and to its off balance sheet items. This useful information can be provided by way of ‘Notes’ to the financial statements, hence notes become an integral part of the financial statements of banks. The users can make use of these notes and supplementary information to arrive at a meaningful decision. Some of the specific disclosure requirements in Bank’s financial statement are given below:

a) Presentation: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies’ and ‘Notes to Accounts’ may be shown under Schedule 17 and Schedule 18 respectively, to maintain uniformity.

b) Minimum Disclosures: While complying with the requirements of Minimum disclosures, banks should ensure to furnish all the required information in ‘Notes to Accounts’. In addition to the minimum disclosures, banks are also encouraged to make more comprehensive disclosures to assist in understanding of the financial position and performance of the bank.

c) Summary of Significant Accounting Policies: Banks should disclose the accounting policies regarding key areas of operations at one place (under Schedule 17) along with Notes to Accounts in their financial statements. The list includes – Basis of Accounting, Transactions involving Foreign Exchange, Investments – Classification, Valuation etc, Advances and Provisions thereon, Fixed Assets and Depreciation, Revenue Recognition, Employee Benefits, Provision for Taxation, Net Profit, etc.

d) Disclosure Requirements: In order to encourage market discipline, Reserve Bank has over the years developed a set of disclosure requirements which allow the market participants to assess key pieces of information on capital adequacy, risk exposures, risk assessment processes and key business parameters which provide a consistent and understandable disclosure framework that enhances comparability. Banks are also required to comply with the Accounting Standard 1 (AS 1) on Disclosure of Accounting Policies issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). The enhanced disclosures have been achieved through revision of Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account of banks and enlarging the scope of disclosures to be made in “Notes to Accounts”.

e) Additional/Supplementary Information: In addition to the 16 detailed prescribed schedules to the balance sheet, banks are required to furnish the following information in the “Notes to Accounts”. Such furnished (information should cover the current year and the previous year). “Notes to Accounts” may contain the supplementary information such as:

1.       Capital (Current & Previous Year) with breakup including CRAR – Tier I/II capital (%), % of shareholding of GOI, amount of subordinated debt raised as Tier II capital. Also it should show the total amount of subordinated debt through borrowings from Head Office for inclusion in Tier II capital etc.

2.       Investments: Total amount should be mentioned in crores, with the total amount of investments, showing the gross value and net value of investments in India and Abroad. The details should also cover the movement of provisions held towards depreciation on investments.

3.       Derivatives: Forward Rate Agreement/Interest Rates Swap: Important aspects of the disclosures would include the details relating to:

a.       The notional principal of swap agreements;

b.       Losses which would be incurred if counterparties failed to fulfill their obligations under the agreements;

c.       Collateral required by the bank upon entering into swaps;

d.       Nature and terms of the swaps including information on credit and market risk and the accounting policies adopted for recording the swaps etc.

4.       Exchange Traded Interest Rate Derivatives: As regards Exchange Traded Interest Rate Derivatives, details would include the notional principal amount undertaken:

a.       During the year (instrument-wise),

b.       Outstanding as on 31st March (instrument-wise),

c.       Outstanding and not “highly effective” (instrument-wise),

d.       Mark-to-market value of exchange traded interest rate derivatives outstanding and not “highly effective” (instrument-wise).

f) Qualitative Disclosure: Banks should discuss their risk management policies pertaining to derivatives with a specific reference to the extent to which derivatives are used, the associated risks and business purposes served. This also includes:

a.       The structure and organization for management of risk in derivatives trading,

b.       The scope and nature of risk measurement, risk reporting and risk monitoring systems,

c.       Policies for hedging and/or mitigating risk and strategies and processes for monitoring the continuing effectiveness of hedges/mitigants, and accounting policy for recording hedge and non-hedge transactions; recognition of income, premiums and discounts; valuation of outstanding contracts; provisioning, collateral and credit risk mitigation.

g) Quantitative Disclosures: Apart from qualitative disclosures, banks should also included the quantitative disclosures. The details are both Currency Derivatives and Interest rate derivatives.

h) Asset Quality: Banks’ performances are considered good based on the quality of assets held by banks. With the changing scenario and due to number of risks associated with banks like Credit, Market and Operational risks, banks are concentrating to ensure better quality assets are held by them. Hence, the disclosure needs to cover various aspects of asset quality consisting of:

a.       Non-Performing Assets, covering various details like Net NPAs, movement of NPAs (Gross)/(Net) and relevant details provisioning to different types of NPAs including Write off/write-back of excess provisions, etc., Details of Non-Performing financial assets purchased, sold, are also required to be furnished.

b.       Particulars of Accounts Restructured: The details under different types of assets such as (i) Standard advances (ii) Sub-standard advances restructured (iii) Doubtful advances restructured (iv) TOTAL with details number of borrowers, amount outstanding, sacrifice.

c.       Banks disclose the total amount outstanding in all the accounts/facilities of borrowers whose accounts have been restructured along with the restructured part or facility. This means even if only one of the facilities/accounts of a borrower has been restructured, the bank should also disclose the entire outstanding amount pertaining to all the facilities/accounts of that particular borrower.

d.       Details of financial assets sold to Securitization/Reconstruction Company for Assets Reconstruction.

e.       Provisions on Standard Assets: Provisions towards Standard Assets need not be netted from gross advances but shown separately as ‘Provisions against Standard Assets’, under ‘Other Liabilities and Provisions – Others’ in Schedule No. 5 of the balance sheet.

f.        Other Details: Business Ratios: (i) Interest Income as a percentage to Working Funds (ii) Non-interest income as a percentage to Working Funds (iii) Operating Profit as a percentage to Working Funds (iv) Return on Assets (v) Business (Deposits plus advances) per employee (vi) Profit per employee.

i) Assets Liability Management: As part of Assets Liability Management, the maturity pattern of certain items of assets and liabilities such as deposits, advances, investments, borrowings, foreign current assets, and foreign currency liabilities. Banks are required to disclose the information based on the maturity patterns covering daily, monthly and yearly basis.

j) Break up Exposures: Banks should also furnish details of exposures to certain sectors like Real Estate Sector.

Exposure to Capital Market: Capital Market exposure details should be disclosed for the current and previous year in crores. The details would include direct investment in equity shares, convertible bonds, convertible debentures and units of equity-oriented mutual funds the corpus of which is not exclusively invested in corporate debt and also loan raised against such securities. A bank must also disclose the risk associated with such investments. The risks are to be categorized as Insignificant, Low, Moderate, High, Very high, Restricted and Off-credit.

Apart from the above category of exposures, banks are required to disclose details relating to Single Borrower Limit (SGL)/Group Borrower Limit (GBL) exceeded by the bank, and Unsecured Advances are to be furnished. Miscellaneous items would include Amount of Provisions made for Income Tax during the year, and Disclosure of Penalties imposed by RBI, etc.

👉👉Financial Statements Analysis


Audit: The balance sheet and the profit and loss account of a banking company have to be audited as stipulated under Section 30 of the Banking Regulation Act. Every banking company’s account needs to be verified and certified by the Statutory Auditors as per the provisions of legal frame work. The powers, functions and duties of the auditors and other terms and conditions as applicable to auditors under the provisions of the Companies Act are applicable to auditors of the banking companies as well. The audit of banking companies books of accounts calls for additional details and certificates to be provided by the auditors.

Apart from the balance sheet audit, Reserve Bank of India is empowered by the provisions of the Banking Regulation Act to conduct/order a special audit of the accounts of any banking company. The special audit may be conducted or ordered to be conducted, in the opinion of the Reserve Bank of India that the special audit is necessary;

a.       In the public interest and/or

b.       In the interest of the banking company and/or

c.       In the interest of the depositors.

The Reserve Bank of India’s directions can order the bank to appoint the same auditor or another auditor to conduct the special audit. The special audit report should be submitted to the Reserve Bank of India with a copy to the banking company. The cost of the audit is to be borne by the banking company.

Financial Reporting Requirements of Insurance Companies in India

To protect the interests of policyholders and to increase transparency and credibility of insurance companies there is a need to have an effective regulatory system for financial reporting of insurance companies. Reporting requirements of insurance companies are different from that of other companies, because of the concept of policyholders and shareholders’ fund, segment reporting in respect of all the funds maintained by the company, complexity of insurance contracts and insurance itself is an intangible product.

Earlier the accounts of insurance companies were governed by Insurance Act 1938, but passing of Insurance Regulatory Development Authority Act (IRDA Act) in 1999 opened a new chapter for disclosure norms of insurance companies. In the year 2002, the IRDA came up with regulations for the preparation of the financial statements of insurance companies. According to the Insurance (Amendment) Act, 2002, the first, second and third schedules prescribed for balance sheet, profit and loss account and revenue account respectively as given in Insurance Act, 1938 have been omitted. Now revenue account, profit and loss account and balance sheet are to be prepared as per the formats prescribed by IRDA. However, the statutes governing financial reporting practices of insurance companies in India are: Insurance Act 1938, IRDA Act, 1999 (including IRDA Regulations), Companies Act and Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI).

IRDA Act 1999 (Including IRDA Regulations)

Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) has prescribed various regulations from time to time. Preparation of Financial Statements and Auditor’s Report of Insurance Companies Regulations, 2002 are one of them. These regulations are related to the financial reporting practices of insurance companies. These regulations are important constituents of the Indian regulatory regime. According to the regulations made by the authority in consultation with the Insurance Advisory Committee, accounts of insurance companies are prepared according to the prescribed formats given by the authority. Details are given as under:

a) Preparation of Financial Statements: After the commencement of Insurance Regulatory Development Authority, Regulations, 2002, all the life insurance companies shall comply with the requirements of Schedule A and general insurance companies with Schedule B of these regulations while preparing their financial statements. The auditor’s report on the financial statements of all insurance companies shall be in conformity with the requirements of Schedule C. IRDA given the list of items to be disclosed in the financial statements of insurance companies under Part II of Schedule A (for life insurance companies) and Schedule B (for general insurance companies) of the (Preparation of Financial Statements and auditor’s report of Insurance Companies) Regulations, 2002. According to these regulations, following disclosure will form part of financial statements of insurance companies:

1.       Every insurance company will disclose all significant accounting policies and accounting standards followed by them in the manner required under Accounting Standard I issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. (ICAI).

2.       All companies will separately disclose if there is any departure from the accounting policies with reasons for such departure.

3.       Disclosure of investments made in accordance with statutory requirements separately together with its amount, nature, security and any special rights in and outside India.

4.       Disclosure of performing and non-performing investments separately.

5.       Disclosure of assets to the extent required to be deposited under local laws for otherwise encumbered in or outside India.

6.       All the companies are required to show sector-wise percentage of their business.

7.       To include a summary of financial statements for the last five years in their annual report to be prepared as prescribed by the IRDA.

8.       Disclose the basis of allocation of investments and income thereon between policyholders’ account and shareholders’ account.

9.       To disclose accounting ratios as prescribed by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority.

Disclosure of following items is made by way of notes to balance sheet:

1.       Contingent Liabilities.

2.       Actuarial assumptions for valuation of liabilities for life policies in force.

3.       Encumbrance’s to assets of the company in and outside India.

4.       Commitments made and outstanding for loans, investments and fixed assets.

5.       Basis of amortization of debt securities.

6.       Claims settled and remaining unpaid for a period of more than six months as on the balance sheet date.

7.       Value of contracts in relation to investments, for purchases where deliveries are pending and sales where payments are overdue.

8.       Operating expenses relating to insurance business and basis of allocation of expenditure to various segments of business.

9.       Computation of managerial remuneration.

10.   Historical costs of those investments valued on fair value basis.

11.   Basis of revaluation of investment property.

b) Management Report: According to the IRDA Regulations 2002, all the insurance companies are required to attach a management report to their financial statements. The contents of the management report are given under PART IV (Schedule A and Schedule B) of these regulations and reproduced below:

1.       Confirmation regarding the continued validity of the registration granted by the IRDA.

2.       Certification that all the dues payable to the statutory authorities has been duly paid.

3.       Confirmation to the effect that the shareholding patterns and the transfer of shares during the year are in accordance with the statutory or regulatory requirements.

4.       Declaration that the management has not directly or indirectly invested outside India the funds of the policyholders.

5.       Confirmation regarding required solvency margins.

6.       Certification to the effect that no part of the life insurance fund has been directly or indirectly applied in contravention of the provisions of the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938) relating to the application and investment of the life insurance funds.

7.       Disclosure with regard to the overall risk exposure and strategy adopted to mitigate the same.

8.       Operations in other countries, if any, with a separate statement giving the management’s estimate of country risk and exposure risk and the hedging strategy adopted.

9.       Ageing of claims indicating the trends in average claim settlement time during the preceding five years.

10.   Certification to the effect as to how the values, as shown in the balance sheet, of the investments and stocks and shares have been arrived at, and how the market value thereof has been ascertained for the purpose of comparison with the values so shown.

11.   Review of assets quality and performance of investment in terms of portfolio, i.e. separately in terms of real estate, loans, investments. Etc.

12.   A schedule payments, which have been made to individuals, firms, companies and organizations in which directors of the insurance company are interested.

13) A responsibility statement indicating therein that:

Ø  In the preparation of financial statements, the applicable amounting standards, principles and policies have been followed along with proper explanations relating to material departures, if any;

Ø  The management has adopted accounting policies and applied them consistently and made judgements and estimates that are reasonable and prudent so as to give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the company at the end of the financial year and of the operating profit or loss and of the profit or loss of the company for the year;

Ø  The management has taken proper and sufficient care for the maintenance of adequate accounting records in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Insurance Act, 1938 and Companies Act 1956 for safeguarding the assets of the company and for preventing and detecting fraud and other irregularities;

Ø  The management has prepared the financial statements on a going concern basis;

Ø  The management has ensured that an internal audit system commensurate with the size and nature of the business exists and is operating effectively.

Non-Banking Financial Company

A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/stocks/bonds/debentures/securities issue by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire purchase, insurance business, chit business but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property. A non-banking institution which is a company and has principal business of receiving deposits under any scheme or arrangement in one lump sum or in instalments by way of contributions or in any other manner, is also a non-banking financial company (Residuary non-banking company).

As per Sec. 45I(f) of RBI Act, 1934, a non-banking financial company’’ means:

(i) a financial institution which is a company;

(ii) a non-banking institution which is a company and which has as its principal business the receiving of deposits, under any scheme or arrangement or in any other manner, or lending in any manner;

(iii) such other non-banking institution or class of such institutions, as the Bank may, with the previous approval of the Central Government and by notification in the Official Gazette, specify.

A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 2013 which is engaged in the business of:

a)       loans and advances,

b)      acquisition of shares/stocks/bonds/debentures/securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature,

c)       leasing,

d)      hire-purchase,

e)      insurance business,

f)        chit business.

However, such a company but does not include any institution whose principal business is that of:

a)      agriculture activity,

b)      industrial activity,

c)      purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities), or providing any services, and

d)      sale/ purchase/ construction of immovable property.

Moreover, a non-banking institution which is a company and has principal business of receiving deposits, under any scheme or arrangement, in one lump sum or in installments, by way of contributions or in any other manner, is also a non-banking financial company (called a Residuary non-banking company).


The issues related to accounting include Income Recognition criteria, Accounting of Investments, asset classification and provisioning requirements. These hav been provided in details in the RBI Directions, namely “Non-Systemically Important Non-Banking Financial (Non-Deposit Accepting or Holding) Companies Prudential Norms (Reserve Bank) Directions, 2015” and “Systemically Important Non-Banking Financial (Non-Deposit Accepting or Holding) Companies Prudential Norms (Reserve Bank) Directions, 2015”.

RBI has prescribed that Income recognition should be based on recognised accounting principles, however Accounting Standards and Guidance Notes issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (referred to in these Directions as “ICAI” shall be followed in so far as they are not inconsistent with any of these Directions.

Income Recognition

1.       The income recognition of NBFCs, irrespective of their categorisation, shall be based on recognised accounting principles.

2.       Income including interest/ discount/ hire charges/ lease rentals or any other charges on NPA shall be recognised only when it is actually realised. Any such income recognised before the asset became non-performing and remaining unrealised shall be reversed.

3.       Income like interest /discount /any other charges on NPAs shall be recognised only when actually realised, RBI also requires that income recognised before asset becoming NPA should be reversed in the financial year in which such asset becomes NPA.

4.       The NBFCs are required to recognise income from dividends on shares of corporate bodies and units of mutual funds on cash basis, unless the company has declared the dividend in AGM and right of the company to receive the same has been established, in such cases, it can be recognized on accrual basis.

5.       Income from bonds and debentures of corporate bodies and from government securities/bonds may be taken into account on accrual basis provided it is paid regularly and is not in arrears.

6.       Income on securities of corporate bodies or public sector undertakings may be taken into account on accrual basis provided the payment of interest and repayment of the security has been guaranteed by Central Government.

Principles for accounting of Investments

Investing is one of the core activities of NBFCs, hence RBI requires the Board of Directors to Frame investment policy of the company and implement the same. The investments in securities shall be classified into current and long term, at the time of making each investment. The Board of the company should include in the investment policy the criteria for classification of investments into current and long-term. The investments need to be classified into current or long term at the time of making each investment. There can be no inter-class transfer of investments on ad hoc basis later on. Inter class transfer, if warranted, should be done at the beginning of half year, on April 1 or October 1, and with the approval of the Board. The investments shall be transferred scrip-wise, from current to long-term or vice-versa, at book value or market value, whichever is lower;

The depreciation, if any, in each scrip shall be fully provided for and appreciation, if any, shall be ignored.

Moreover, the depreciation in one scrip shall not be set off against appreciation in another scrip, at the time of such inter-class transfer, even in respect of the scrips of the same category.

Valuation of Investments

A) The directions also specifies various valuation guidelines in respect of Quoted and Unquoted current investments leaving the Long term Investments to be valued as per ICAI Accounting Standards. It requires Quoted current investments to be grouped into specified categories, viz. (i) equity shares, (ii) preference shares, (iii) debentures and bonds, (iv) Government securities including treasury bills, (v) units of mutual fund, and (vi) others.

The valuation of each specified category is to be done at aggregate cost or aggregate market value whichever is lower. For this purpose, the investments in each category shall be considered scrip-wise and the cost and market value aggregated for all investments in each category. If the aggregate market value for the category is less than the aggregate cost for that category, the net depreciation shall be provided for or charged to the profit and loss account. If the aggregate market value for the category exceeds the aggregate cost for the category, the net appreciation shall be ignored. Depreciation in one category of investments shall not be set off against appreciation in another category.

B) Unquoted equity shares in the nature of current investments shall be valued at cost or break-up value, whichever is lower. However, the RBI Directions has prescribed that fair value for the break-up value of the shares may be replaced, if considered necessary.

C) Unquoted preference shares in the nature of current investments shall be valued at cost or face value, whichever is lower.

D) Investments in unquoted Government securities or Government guaranteed bonds shall be valued at carrying cost.

E) Unquoted investments in the units of mutual funds in the nature of current investments shall be valued at the net asset value declared by the mutual fund in respect of each particular scheme.

F) Commercial papers shall be valued at carrying cost.

G) A long term investment shall be valued in accordance with the Accounting Standard issued by ICAI.

Preparation of Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account

1.       Every non-banking financial company shall prepare its balance sheet and profit and loss account as on March 31 every year. Whenever a non-banking financial company intends to extend the date of its balance sheet as per provisions of the Companies Act, it should take prior approval of the Reserve Bank of India before approaching the Registrar of Companies for this purpose.

2.       Further, even in cases where the Bank and the Registrar of Companies grant extension of time, the nonbanking financial company shall furnish to the Bank a proforma balance sheet (unaudited ) as on March 31 of the year and the statutory returns due on the said date. Every non-banking financial company shall finalise its balance sheet within a period of 3 months from the date to which it pertains.

3.       Every non-banking financial company shall append to its balance sheet prescribed under the Companies Act, 2013, the particulars in the schedule as set out in Annex I.

Disclosures in the Balance Sheet

1.       The directions specify certain disclosure requirements in the balance sheet.

2.       Disclosure of provisions created without netting them from the income or against the value of assets. The provisions shall be distinctly indicated under separate heads of account as (i) Provisions for bad and doubtful debts; and (ii) Provisions for depreciation in investments.

3.       Provisions shall not be appropriated from the general provisions and loss reserves held. Provisions shall be debited to the profit and loss account.

4.       The excess of provisions, if any, held under the heads general provisions and loss reserves may be written back without making adjustment against the provisions.

5.       Every non-banking financial company shall append to its balance sheet prescribed under the Companies Act, 2013, the particulars in the schedule as set out in Annex I.

6.       The following disclosure requirements are applicable only to systemically important (Asset Size more than Rs. 500 crores) non-deposit taking non-banking financial company:

a)       Capital to Risk Assets Ratio (CRAR);

b)      Exposure to real estate sector, both direct and indirect; and

c)       Maturity pattern of assets and liabilities.”

7. The formats for the above disclosures are also specified by RBI.