Tuesday, December 05, 2017

AHSEC - Class 12: Political Science Notes (Unit - 4)

UNIT – 4
ALTERNATIVE CENTRES OF POWER
VERY SHORT ANSWER (1 Mark)
1. What is meant by Marshall Plan?
Ans. Under the Marshall Plan, the organization for European Economic cooperation was established in 1948 to channel aid to the West European States. It became a forum where the Western European states began to cooperate on trade and economic issues.
2. Fill in the blank:
Ans. Euro is the common currency of European Union.
3. Write the full form of ASEAN?
Ans. The full form of ASEAN is the Association of South East Asian Nations.
4. What is Bangkok Declaration?
Ans. ASEAN was established in 1967 by five countries of that region by signing what is called the Bangkok Declaration.
5. In which year ARF was established?
Ans. 1994 A.R.F was established.
6. Write ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.
India is a member of ASEAN
Ans. No
7. Who was the leader of Communist Revolution in China?
Ans. Mao-Tse-Tung was the leader of Communist Revolution in China.

8. What is open door policy?
Ans. The economic liberalization policy adopted by China in 1973 to open up different sectors of economy for competition is the open door policy.
9. What do you mean by ‘Four Modernization’?
Ans. Four modernizations were proposed by Zhou Enlain. He proposed for the “Four Modernization” in sector such as science and technology.
10. In which year P.M. Rajiv Gandhi visited China?
Ans. Rajiv Gandhi visited china in 1988.
11. In which year single market was created?
Ans. Single market was created in 1993.
12. In which year Council of Europe was established?
Ans. Council of Europe was established in 1949.
13. In which year the ASEAN Regional Forum was established?
Ans. ASEAN Regional Forum was established in 1994.
14. When China became a number of World Trade Organization?
Ans. China became a member of World Trade Organization in December 11, 2001.
15. When was treaty of Meastricht Signed?
Ans. Treaty of Meastricht was signed in 1992.
16. In which year ASEAN was established?
Ans. ASEAN was established in 1967.
17. Write in one sentence problem of unemployment in China?
Ans. Over population is one important factor of unemployment in China.
18. Who was the Political religious leader of Tibet in 1950?
Ans. Dalai Lama
19. China entered into bilateral relations with which major country in 1972.
Ans. China entered into bilateral relation with U.S. in 1972.
VERY SHORT ANSWER (2 Marks)


1. Mention the names of the permanent members of the UN Security Council from the European Union?
Ans. France and Britain are the permanent members of the UN Security Council from the European Union.
2. Do you think that European integration was aided by the cold war? How?
Ans. Yes, European integration was aided by the Cold War. America created massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy under what was called Marshall Plan.
3. Do you think that European Union has started to act like a nation state? Give reasons.
Ans. Yes, European Union has started to act like a nation state. Some reasons behind it are – Although the attempts to have a constitution for the E.U. have failed, it has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealing with other nation.
4. What are the objectives of ASEAN?
Ans. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand are the pillars of the ASEAN community. The objectives of ASEAN were primarily to accelerate economic growth and through that social progress and cultural development. A secondary objective was to promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations character.
5. Fill in the banks: The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was principally over ____ and ____ region.
Ans. Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin
6. Mention the names of two ASEAN members with whom India has signed FTA’s.
Ans. Singapore and Thailand are the two ASEAN members with whom India has signed FTA’s.
7. What are the objectives of establishing regional organizations?
Ans. During the Cold War years Indian foreign policy didn’t pay adequate attention to ASEAN. But in recent years, India has tried to make amends. It signed FTA’s with two ASEAN members viz. Singapore and Thailand. It is trying to sign an FTA with ASEAN itself.
8. Write any two causes that led to the formation of European Union.
Ans. Two causes led to the formation of Europe Union are –
a)      The collapse of the Soviet Block put European on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992.
b)      The formation of E.U. was laid for a common foreign and security policy, co-operation on justice and home affairs and the creation of single currency.
9. Mention two countries who are member of W.E?
Ans. Denmark and Sweden are members of E.U.
10. Write the names of two great power of Asia?
Ans. India and China are two great power of Asia.
11. Mention two drawback of China’s new economic policy?
Ans. Two drawbacks of China’s new economic policy –
a)      China’s new economic policy has not been able to touch everyone.
b)      Unemployment has rise in China.
12. Which countries joined the E.U. in January 1995?
Ans. Austria, Finland, Sweden joined E.U. in January 1995.
13. In 1992 which regional organization was formed?
Ans. In 1992 European Union was formed.
14. Write two aims of European Union?
Ans. Two aims of European Union are –
a)      Promote peace, its values and the well being of the people.
b)      Promote economic, social and territorial cohesion and solidarity.
15. In what way does the present Chinese Economy differ from its command economy? [2013]
Ans. Chinese economy during that about 30 years has shown a tremendous growth. From a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade it has changed to a more market oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy.
      China’s economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system. In the beginning, the economy of china was based on the Soviet model. In 1970’s china started its economic reforms. Again, in 1978 it announced the ‘Open Door Policy’. The ‘Open Door Policy’ was to generate higher productivity by investments of capital and technology from abroad.
16. What is meant by Meastricht Treaty?
Ans. In 1992 Meastricht Treaty was signed which was a bigger step to formally created European Union.
17. What major challenges arose in Europe after the Second World War?
Ans. After the Second World War, there was a dated about the “question of Europe”. There was growing communist threat and division of Germany promoted the United States to play a more pro-active role in Europe.
18. _____Plan influenced the establishment of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation in _____?
Ans. Marshall Plan Influenced the establishment of the organization for European Economic Co-operation in 1948.
LONG ANSWER (4 Marks)
1. “The European Union has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one Elaborate.
Ans. The E.U. has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one. The E.U. has started to act more like a nation state. It has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealing with other nations. The European union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new numbers, especially from the erstwhile Soviet Block.
2. What are the components of the ASEAN vision 2020?
Ans. (a) The ASEAN Vision-2020 builds on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region.
          (b) ASEAN has mediated the end of the Cambodian Conflict, the East Timor Crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asian Cooperation.
          Thus, the components of the ASEAN Vision-2020 are –
1)      Outward looking role.
2)      Encouragement to negotiations.
3)      Mediatory role of ASEAN.

3. Name the six countries who signed the treaties of Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC)?
Ans. The name of the six countries who signed the treaties of Rome establishing the European Economic Community:
a)      France,
b)      West Germany,
c)       Italy,
d)      Belgium,
e)      Netherlands,
f)       Luxembourg.
4. Name the five countries who established ASEAN in 1967.
Ans. The five countries who established ASEAN in 1967 are –
1)      Indonesia,
2)      Malaysia.
3)      Philippines,
4)      Singapore,
5)      Thailand.
5. Name the pillars and the objectives of the ASEAN Community?
Ans. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand are the pillars of the ASEAN community. The objectives of ASEAN were primarily to accelerate economic growth and through that social progress and cultural development. A secondary objectives was to promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations character.
6. What major Challenges arose in Europe after the Second World War?
Ans. As the Second World War came to an end, many of European leaders gripped with the question of Europe. Should Europe be allowed to revert to its old rivalries or be reconstructed on principles and institutions that world contribute to a positive conception of international relations. The Second World War shattered many of the assumptions and structures on which the European states had based their relations. In 1945, the European states confronted the ruin of their economics and the destruction of institutions, assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded.
VERY LONG ANSWER (6 Marks)
1. What is ASEAN community? Briefly discuss about the three pillars of ASEAN community.
Ans. Since ASEAN had some of the most rapidly growing economics it expanded its objectives beyond the realm of social and economic cooperation. In 2003, ASEAN followed the European Union path by establishing an ASEAN community with three pillars. They are –
      ASEAN comprises of three pillars – security community, economic community and social-cultural community.
ASEAN Security Community:
a)      The ASEAN Security Community aims to maintain peace and security in the South-Asian nations. For this they meet frequently to solve their security issues.
b)      The ASEAN nations also want to make their place a zone of peace. They, therefore, collaborate with each other to wipe out insurgency and terrorist activities.
ASEAN Economic Community:
a)      ASEAN targets to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.
b)      It has also focused on creating a Free Trade Area for investment labour and services.
ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community:
a)      ASEAN nations have tried to maintain close cultural relationship with all regions of the world. There has been frequent exchange of sports and cultural terms amongst the ASEAN and non-ASEAN nations.
b)      They also aim that close cultural links will solidify the relations amongst ASEAN nations. The organization has started awarding literary awards to people in the ASEAN region.
2. Briefly discuss the role of three major alternative centres of power.
Ans. The role of three major alternative centres of power discussed below –
1)      European Union: European Union has played a major rule as an alternative centre of power. It has considerable political, military, economic and diplomatic influence. EU has a GBP of over which 12 million is the biggest economy in the world surpassing even USA. EU’s share of world trade is three times bigger than that of US. The economic power of EU gives its power to influence neighbours as well as Asian and African countries.
2)      ASEAN: Since ASEAN has some of the most rapidly growing economics it expanded its objectives beyond the realm of social and economic cooperation. The vision 2020 builds ASEAN as one of the major alternative centres of power, by encouraging negotiation over conflicts in the region. For example ASEAN has mediated the end of the Cambodian conflicts, the East Timor crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asian cooperation.
3)      China as an Alternative Centre of Power: China has opened up its economy which in turn has helped Chinese economy to break from stagnation of command economy. Privatization of agriculture led to remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes followed by an exponential growth of rural industry. But during common economy industrial production was lagging behind. Presently the new trading laws and creation of special Economic Zones led to phenomenal rise in foreign trade whereas, under closed economy China’s international trade was minimal and per capital income was very low.
3. Write a note in India-China relations.
Ans. India and China are both ancient civilization, sharing a common border and having a relationship with each for thousands of years. Buddhism spread from India and China and many Chinese scholars visited India to learn Buddhism. National movements in the two countries against colonial oppression led to some renewed contacts in the late 18th and 19th centuries.
      Our relations with China after independence started off very well due to a number of friendly gestures on the part of India. India was one of the first countries to recognize Communist China and later we advocated her membership to the United Nations. During the Korean War of 1950, India established contacts with China and played a positive role in the UN in defence of Chinese interests. In 1951, India voted in the UN General Assembly against a resolution branding China as an aggressor in Korea. After independence, India renounced its extra-territorial rights in Tibet and accepted China’s suzerainty over Tibet.


4. What are the major areas of Influence of European Union? Discuss in detail?
Ans. European Union, an influential regional organization in the Europe was formed in 1992. Since its inception EU continues to grow as a highly powerful organization. The European Union has economic, political and diplomatic and military influence.
a)      European Union’s economic power: The European Union is the world’s biggest economy with GDP of more than $ 12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than that of the USA. Its currency, the Euro, is now in a position to threat the dominance of the US dollar. Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the USA allowing it to be more assertive in trade dispute with the USA and China. Its economic power gives its influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asian and Africa. It also functions as an important bloc in international economic organizations such as WTO.
b)      The European Union’s political power: Two members of the European Union, Britain and France hold permanent seats in the Security Council. The EU includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environment degradation.
c)       European Union’s military power: Militarily, the European Union’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defence is second after the US. Two EU member states, Britain and France also have nuclear arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads. It is also the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.
5. In spite of the drastic economic development in China, Some economic challenges still exist there. List out the challenges?
Ans. With the introduction of the New Economic Policy in China, while the Chinese economy has improved dramatically yet not everyone in China has received the benefits of the reforms and China still faces some economic challenges like –
1)      Unemployment has risen in China with nearly 100 million people looking for jobs.
2)      Female employment and conditions of work are as bad as in Europe of the 18th and 19th centuries.
3)      Environmental Degradation and Corruption have increased to an unprecedented level.
4)      There is also rise in ‘Economic Inequality’ between rural and urban residents and coastal and inland provinces.
5)      There is violation of human rights and the people do not enjoy the requisite number of basic rights.
6. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organization. Justify the statement.
Ans. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organization. The objective of establishing regional organization is to make sure peace and prosperity of the member countries. Various aims of establishing regional economic organization are –
1)      To accelerate economic growth.
2)      To accelerate social progress and cultural development.
3)      To promote regional peace and stability.
4)      To increase political co-operation.
5)      To strengthen security, co-operation.
6)      To strengthen security, co-operation and progress.
7. Explain the Aims of the European Union.
Ans. The principle aims of the European Union are to –
a)      Promote peace, its values and the well-being of its peoples;
b)      Offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, and an internal market where competition is free and undistorted;
c)       Work for a sustainable development of Europe based on a social market economy, aiming at full employment and social progress, and with a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment;
d)      Combat social exclusion and discrimination, promote social justice and protection, equality between women and men, solidarity between generations and protection of the rights of the child;
e)      Promote economic, social and territorial cohesion and solidarity among member states.
f)       Respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity and shall ensure that Europe’s cultural heritage is safeguarded and enhanced;
8. Explain the challenges and future of European Union in World Politics.
Ans. The challenges and future of European Union in world politics are –
1)      The people of Europe are not very enthusiastic about giving the EU powers exercised by their government. The voter turnout for the elections to the European Parliament is very low when compared to general elections of countries in EU.
2)      Positively, the EU has a GDP of over $ 12 trillion in 2005. The Euro can pose a threat to the US dollar and a three time larger share of world trade when compared to the US.
3)      Enlargement of EU has however complicated efforts to harmonize members’ foreign policies. Several new members, notably Poland, supported American intervention in Iraq despite German and French opposition.
4)      There is a ‘democratic deficit’ in working of EU institutions which favour the bigger powers of EU notably, France, Germany and UK in the decision making process.
9. Explain the aims and purposes of ASEAN.
Ans. The aims and purposes of ASEAN are –
a)      To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter;
b)      To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields;
c)       To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres;
d)      To promote South Asian studies; and
e)      To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.
10. State 2 objectives of ARF.
Ans. Firstly, to foster constructive dialogue and consultation on political and security issues of common interest and concern;
      Secondly, to contribute to efforts towards confidence building and preventive diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific region
11. Explain the challenges of ASEAN.
Ans. Firstly, Since the late 1990’s, many scholars have argued that the principle of non-interference has blunted ASEAN efforts in handling the problem of military regime in Myanmar and its human rights abuses; again tensions between Thailand and Cambodia continue to hamper the progress of political unity amongst members of ASEAN.
      Secondly, the inability of ASEAN to resolve the region’s 1997 – 98 financial crisis and other political challenges in the 1990’s, including East Timor’s secession from Indonesia, annual forest fire haze from Indonesian Borneo that creates a regional public health hazard, reveals that ASEAN is vulnerable to regional problems.
12. Explain the Chinas Economic and Political Challenges.
Ans. Firstly, while there has been a dramatic improvement in its economy, the benefits of such growth have not been evenly distributed amongst people. It has been estimated that there are over 100 million unemployed people in China. Widespread poverty in rural China is a major challenge and employment of women in Industry continues to remain low. Corruption and increased inequalities has hampered China’s growth rates.

      Secondly, China’s leaders remain committed on rapid development and increasing energy use, and thus it is seen as one of the principal contributors to global warming. It is first in coal consumption and the number two nation in carbon dioxide emissions behind the United States. Many of its cities are thick with air pollution and large regions are beset with drought, failing crops and sandstorms linked to global warming. 

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