**Business Statistics Notes**

**B.Com 2 ^{nd} and 3^{rd} Semester (CBCS Pattern)**

**Classification of Data - ****Univariate, Bivariate and Multi-Variate Data**

**Classification of Data**

The process of arranging the data in groups or
classes according to their common characteristics is technically known as
classification. Classification is the grouping of related facts into classes.
It is the first step in tabulation.

In the words of Secrist, "Classification
is the process of arranging data into sequences and groups according to their
common characteristics or separating them into different but related
parts."

**Essentials
of classification**

a) The classification must be exhaustive so
that every unit of the distribution may find place in one group or another.

b) Classification must conform to the objects
of investigation.

c) All the items constituting a group must be
homogeneous.

d) Classification should be elastic so that
new facts and figures may easily be adjusted.

e) Classification should be stable. If it is
not so and is changed for every enquiry then the data would not fit for an
enquiry.

f) The data must not overlap. Each item of the
data must be found in one class.

**According to nature, data may be classified as:**

**1. Univariate
data: **Univariate data is a data in which there is only one variable. It is
simplest form of data and deals with only change in quantity. It does not deal
with cause and effect relationship between two or more variables. The main
purpose of univariate data is to find the pattern exist in given data. Examples
of univariate data is age of 10 workers in a factory, marks scored by 50
students in mathematics etc. Pattern exists in univariate data can be analysed
with the help of various tools of measures of central tendency and dispersion.
Also diagrams and graphs can be used to analyse univariate data.

**2. Bivariate
data: **Bivariate data is a data in which there are two different variables.
It deals with cause and effect relationship between two variables and analysis
of data is done to find the relationship between two variables. Example of
Bivariate data is age and weight of workers, demand and supply of a product,
marks of students in two different subjects, temperature and sales of woolen
products etc.

**3. Multivariate
data:** Multivariate data is data in which there are three or more variables.
Example of multivariate data is suppose a manufacturer wants to compare the
sales data of his product in five different areas. Some of the common tool used
to analysed multivariate data is correlation and regression analysis,
multivariate analysis of variance etc.

**4. Time
series data:** Time series data is the study of behaviour of single variable
at different intervals. This data is analysed to find the trend. Example of
time series data is the sales of product X over a period of 10 years.

**5. Cross
sectional data: **Cross sectional data is the study of behaviour of more than
one variable at different interval.
Example of cross sectional data is the sales of product X over a period
of 10 years in four different states.

**ALSO READ: CHAPTER WISE BUSINESS STATISTICS NOTES**

Unit 1: Statistical Data and Descriptive Statistics

a. Nature and Classification of data

b. Measures of Central Tendency

d. Skewness, Moments and Kurtosis

Unit 2: Probability and Probability Distributions

b. Probability distributions:Binomial-Poisson-Normal

Unit 3: Simple Correlation and Regression Analysis

UNIT 6: Sampling Concepts, Sampling Distributions and Estimation

**PAST EXAM SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS **

**Non-CBCS Pattner Question Paper:**

1. Business Statistics Question Papers (From 2014 onwards) B.Com 3rd Sem

2. All Question Papers are Available Here

**CBCS Pattern Question Paper** 1. Business Statistics (Hons) - 2020 2021 (Held in 2022)

**Business Statistics ****Solved Question Papers**

1. Business Statistics Solved Question Papers (Non-CBCS Pattern)

2. Business Statistics Solved Questions Papers (CBCS Pattern): **2020 2021** **2022**

**CHAPTER WISE PRACTICAL QUESTION BANK:**

Chapter wise practical question bank is available in our mobile application. **Download DTS App** for Chapter Wise practical question bank.

**ALSO READ: CHAPTER WISE BUSINESS STATISTICS NOTES**

Unit 1: Statistical Data and Descriptive Statistics

a. Nature and Classification of data

b. Measures of Central Tendency

d. Skewness, Moments and Kurtosis

Unit 2: Probability and Probability Distributions

b. Probability distributions:Binomial-Poisson-Normal

Unit 3: Simple Correlation and Regression Analysis

UNIT 6: Sampling Concepts, Sampling Distributions and Estimation

**PAST EXAM SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS **

**Non-CBCS Pattner Question Paper:**

1. Business Statistics Question Papers (From 2014 onwards) B.Com 3rd Sem

2. All Question Papers are Available Here

**CBCS Pattern Question Paper** 1. Business Statistics (Hons) - 2020 2021 (Held in 2022)

**Business Statistics ****Solved Question Papers**

1. Business Statistics Solved Question Papers (Non-CBCS Pattern)

2. Business Statistics Solved Questions Papers (CBCS Pattern): **2020 2021** **2022**

**CHAPTER WISE PRACTICAL QUESTION BANK:**

Chapter wise practical question bank is available in our mobile application. **Download DTS App** for Chapter Wise practical question bank.

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