Wednesday, May 15, 2019

Dibrugarh University B.Com 2nd Sem: Principles of Business Management Solved Papers (May' 2018)


2018 (May)
COMMERCE
(General/Speciality)
Course: 204
(Principles of Business Management)
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions
 (NEW COURSE)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 24
1. Answer the following questions:                        1x8=8

a)         Who is the author of the book, General and Industrial Management?           Ans: Henry fayol
b)         Write the name of one major proponent of Traditional or Classical theory of management.                F.W. Taylor
c)          Which concept of management reduces the workload of a manager?           Delegation
d)         What is meant by ‘efficiency’ in management?                       
Ans: Efficiency signifies a level of performance that describes using the least amount of input to achieve the highest amount of output.
e)         Which function of management establishes authority / responsibility relationship?                Organising
f)          Name the first step in the process of ‘managerial control’.                 Setting performance standard
g)         Give two examples of positive motivation in motivating employees.             Incentives and rewards
2. Answer briefly any four of the following questions:                                                  4x4=16
a)      Write the advantages of line and staff organization.
Ans: Advantages of Line and staff Organisation:
1.       This system is simple to establish and operate.
2.       Under this system, responsibility and authority are clearly defined. Every member of the organisation knows his exact position, to whom he is responsible and who are responsible to him. Because of the clear fixation of responsibility, no person can escape from his liability.
3.       There is unity of command and control under this system. That is, a subordinate receives orders from only one superior and is responsible only to one superior.
4.       The unified authority and control implicit in this system ensures better discipline among the employees.
5.       The unification of authority and responsibility present in this system facilitates quick and prompt decisions.
b)      What kind of role does a good plan play in business management?
Ans: Importance and Advantages of a good plan
Planning is of vital importance in the managerial process. No enterprise can achieve its objectives without systematic planning. “Planning is the heart of management” The following points highlight the importance of planning function of management:
a.      Planning provides directions: By stating i n advance how work is to be done, planning provide direction for action. If goals are well defined, employees are aware of what the organisation has to do and what they must do to achieve those goals. Departments and individuals in the organisation are able to work in coordination. Planning keeps the organisation on the right path.  If there was no planning, employees would be working in different directions and the organisation would not be able to achieve its goals efficiently.
b.      Planning reduces the risks of uncertainty: Business enterprises operate in an uncertain environment and face several types of risks. Planning enables these enterprises to predict future events and prepare to face the unexpected events. With the help of planning, managers can identify potential dangers and take steps to overcome them. Thus, planning helps risk and uncertainty.
c.       Planning facilitates decision-making: Decision-making involves searching for various alternative courses of action, evaluating them and selecting the best course of action. Under planning, targets are laid down. With the help of these targets, managers can better evaluate alternative courses of action and select the best alternative. Plans lay down in advance what is to be done and how it is to be done. Therefore, decisions can be taken with greater confidence.
d.      Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities: Since planning ensures clarity in thought and action, work is carried on smoothly without interruptions. There is no confusion and misunderstanding. Useless and redundant activities are minimized or eliminated. It is easier to detect inefficiencies and take corrective measures to deal with them.

c)       What are the limitations of planning?
Ans: Limitations of Planning: Planning is essential for a business organisation. It is difficult to manage operations without formal planning. It is important for the organisation to move towards achieving goals. But often things to not always go according to plan. Unforeseen events and changes, rise in costs and prices, environmental changes, government interventions, legal regulations, all affect our business plans. Plans then need to be modified. Therefore, planning might fail due to the following limitations:
a.      Planning does not work in dynamic environment: The business environment is dynamic, nothing is constant. The environment consists of a number of dimensions— economic, political, technological, legal and social dimensions. The organisation has to constantly adapt itself to the changes in business environment. However, it is not always possible to accurately assess future trends in the environment.
                                             i.      Competition in the market can upset financial plans.
                                           ii.      Sales targets have to be revised and according is cash budgets also need to be modified since then are based on sales figures.
Thus, planning cannot foresee everything and thus these are obstacles to effective planning.
b.      Planning is a time consuming process: Planning is a time consuming process. It requires collection of information, its analysis and interpretation. These activities may take considerable time. Sometimes plans to be drawn up take so much of time that there is not much time left for implementation of plans.
c.       Planning involves huge costs: Planning is an expensive process in terms of money. When plans are drawn up, huge costs are involved in the formulation of plans. If the costs are not justified by the benefits derived from the plan, it may have adverse effect on the enterprise. There are a number of incidental costs as well, like expenses on Board’s meetings, discussions with professional experts and preliminary investigations to find out the Viability of the plan.
d.      Planning creates rigidity: Planning leads to rigid mode of functioning for managers. This has adverse effect on the initiative to be taken by them.

d)      What are the essential requirements of an effective control system?
Ans: The following are the essentials or basic requirements of an effectively control system:
1)      Suitable: The control system must be suitable for the kind of activity intended to serve. Apart from differences in the systems of control in different business, they also vary from department to department and from one level in the organisation to the other. The manager must be sure that he is using the technique appropriate for control of the specific activity involved.
2)      Understandable: The system must be understandable, i.e., the control information supplied should be capable of being understood by those who use it. A control system that a manager cannot understand is bound to remain ineffective. The control information supplied should be such as will be used by the managers concerned. It is, therefore, the duty of the manager concerned to make sure that the control information supplied to him is of a nature that will serve his purpose.
3)      Economical: The system must be economical in operation, i.e., the cost of a control system should not exceed the possible savings from its use. The extent of control necessary should be decided by the standard of accuracy or quality required. A very high degree or standard of accuracy or quality may not really be-necessary.
4)      Flexible: The system of control must be flexible, i.e. workable even if the plans have to be changed. In case the control systems can work only on the basis of one specific plan, it becomes useless if the plan breaks down and another has to be substituted. A good control system would be sufficiently flexible to permit the changes so necessitated.
e)      Write a short note on Frederick Herzberg’s theory of motivation.
Ans: Another popular need-based approach to motivation is the dual-structure approach developed by Frederick Herzberg. This is also known as Two-factor Theory. Herzberg developed this approach after interviewing 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburg. He asked them to recall such occasions when they had been dissatisfied and less motivated. He found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction. For instance, an individual who identified 'low pay' as causing dissatisfaction did not necessarily mention 'high pay' as a cause of satisfaction. Instead, several other factors, such as recognition or accomplishment, were cited as causing satisfaction.
This finding suggests that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are at opposite ends of a single scale. Employees would, therefore, be satisfied, dissatisfied or somewhere in between. Herzberg argued that attitudes and motivation consists of a dual structure. One structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction. The other structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no satisfaction.
Herzberg identified two sets of factors responsible for causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The factors influencing satisfaction are called motivation factors or motivators, which are related specifically to the job itself and the factors causing dissatisfaction, are called hygiene factors, which are related to the work environment in which the job is performed.
3. (a) Briefly discuss the nature and significance of business management.                         7+7=14
Ans: Nature or characteristics of Management: On the basis of critical analysis of  various definitions of management, the main features of management may be stated as follows :
a)      Management is a process: Management is a continuous activity which aims at making optimum use of the available resources like men, machinery, materials, and money, for achieving organisational goals.
b)      Management deals with several functions: Management includes several functions such as planning, organising, staffing, directing co-ordinating, controlling, motivating or actuating, controlling, decision making, leadership and communication.
c)       Management is goal oriented: Every management activity is directed towards achieving predetermined objectives of the organiation.
d)      Management is a group of organized activities: Management plans, organizes, co-ordinates, directs and controls the group efforts so as to achieve organisational goals efficiently and effectively.
e)      Management is basically a factor of production: The factors of production include land, labour, capital and entrepreneurs.  A manager or entrepreneur mobilizes resources like land, labour and capital to produce’ output to satisfy needs of the society and earn profit.
f)       Management is a discipline: Management , although borrows several concept for other social sciences, it has developed its own body of principles and theories so as to become a special discipline or subject of study for potential managers.
g)      Management is  a science and also an art: Science is defined as a systematized body of knowledge and it uses scientific methods of observation measurement, experimentation etc.  Its principles are exact and university applicable. Management has systematized body of knowledge and its principles are evolved on the basis of   observation. But management being a social science, it is not an exact science.  So management is a soft or inexact science.
Art refers to the way of doing specific things i.e. it indicates “ how an objective is to be achieved.  it is the know-how to achieve the desired results.  Art needs continuous practice to reach the level of perfection.  An art is application of science. Thus art and science are interrelated in the sense that putting scientific principles into practice requires art, which needs special knowledge and skills.
Management is both a science as well as an art.  The science of management provides certain principles that can guide managers in the professional efforts, while the art of management deals with tackling every situation in an effective manner.  Planning and organising emphasize the science of management while direction, communication motivation coordination and control emphasize art of management.  Getting work done through people is an art of management.
h)      Management is dynamic: Under dynamic environment management faces several challenges hence efforts are made to develop and use new techniques for managing the organisations effectively and efficiently.  as social change takes place, management also changes to overcome the problems whenever they arise.
i)        Management is a Profession: Profession is an occupation for which specialized skills and training are required and these skills are used not for private profit but for the larger interests of the society.  There is a professional body to control the behaviour of its members.  At present management is not a full fledged profession but it is heading towards becoming a profession.
IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE/OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT
According to Drucker, management is the dynamic life giving element in every organisation. In its absence, an organisation is merely a collection of men, machines, money and material. The importance of management is:-
a)      Optimum Use of Resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage.
b)      Effective leadership and Motivation: In the absence of management, the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. Management creates teamwork and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing guidance, counseling and effective leadership.
c)       Establish Sound Industrial Relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity.
d)      Achievement of Goals: Objectives can be achieved only when the human and non human resources are combined in a proper way. Managers plan carefully, organize the resources properly, hire competent people, and provide necessary guidance. Thus management is goal oriented.
e)      Reduces Costs - It gets maximum results through minimum input by proper planning and by using minimum input & getting maximum output. Management uses physical, human and financial resources in such a manner which results in best combination. This helps in cost reduction.
f)       Establishes Equilibrium - It enables the organisation to survive in changing environment. It keeps in touch with the changing environment. With the change is external environment, the initial co-ordination of organisation must be changed. So it adapts organisation to changing demand of market / changing needs of societies. It is responsible for growth and survival of organisation.
g)      Essentials for Prosperity of Society - Efficient management leads to better economical production which helps in turn to increase the welfare of people. Good management makes a difficult task easier by avoiding wastage of scarce resource. It improves standard of living.
Or
(b) Critically evaluate the ‘contingency approach’ of management.                                        14
Ans: The contingency approach focuses on applying management principles and processes as dictated by the unique characteristics of each situation. It emphasizes that there is no one best way to manage and that it depends on various situational factors, such as the external environment, technology, organisational characteristics, characteristics of the manager, and characteristics of the subordinates. Contingency theorists often implicitly or explicitly criticize the classical approach for its emphasis on the universality of management principles; however, most classical writers recognized the need to consider aspects of the situation when applying management principles.
Basis
Features of Contingency approach
a) Focus
Emotion and human qualities of workers
b) Structure
Social system
c) Application
Democratic process
d) Emphasize
Personal security and social demand
e) Work Goal of worker
Attainment of organisation goal
f) Concept about men
Social being
g) Content
Human relation movement and organisational behaviour
h) Relation
Informal
i) Nature
Organisitic

4. (a) What is meant by ‘decision-making’? Explain the role of decision-making in business management.  4+10=14
Ans: Decision Making - Introduction
Decision-making is an essential aspect of modern management. It is a primary function of management. A manager's major job is sound/rational decision-making. He takes hundreds of decisions consciously and subconsciously. Decision-making is the key part of manager's activities. Decisions are important as they determine both managerial and organisational actions. A decision may be defined as "a course of action which is consciously chosen from among a set of alternatives to achieve a desired result." It represents a well-balanced judgment and a commitment to action.
It is rightly said that the first important function of management is to take decisions on problems and situations. Decision-making pervades all managerial actions. It is a continuous process. Decision-making is an indispensable component of the management process itself.
The effectiveness of management depends on the quality of decision-making. In this sense, management is rightly described as decision-making process. According to R. C. Davis, "management is a decision-making process." Decision-making is an intellectual process which involves selection of one course of action out of many alternatives. Decision-making will be followed by second function of management called planning. The other elements which follow planning are many such as organising, directing, coordinating, controlling and motivating.
Decision-making has priority over planning function. According to Peter Drucker, it is the top management which is responsible for all strategic decisions such as the objectives of the business, capital expenditure decisions as well as such operating decisions as training of manpower and so on. Without such decisions, no action can take place and naturally the resources would remain idle and unproductive. The managerial decisions should be correct to the maximum extent possible. For this, scientific decision-making is essential.
Definitions of Decision-making
The Oxford Dictionary defines the term decision-making as "the action of carrying out or carrying into effect".
According to Trewatha & Newport, "Decision-making involves the selection of a course of action from among two or more possible alternatives in order to arrive at a solution for a given problem".
Significance of Decision Making
A decision is always related to some problem, difficulty or conflict. Decisions help in solving problems or resolving conflicts. There are always differences of opinions, judgements, etc. Managerial decision helps in maintaining group effectiveness. All problems may not require decision-making but merely the supply of information may be sufficient. For example, when will different groups report for re-orientation? The supply of information about training programme may be enough.
Decision problems necessitate a choice from different alternatives. A number of possibilities are selected before making a final selection. Decision-making requires something more than a selection. The material requiring a decision may be available but still a decision may not be reached. The effect of a decision is to be felt in future so it requires proper analysis of available material and a prediction for the future. If decision premises do not come true, then decision itself may be wrong. Sometimes decisions are influenced by adopting a follow-the-leader practice. The leader of the group or an important manager of a concern sets the precedent and others silently follow that decision.
From the above explanation, the following benefits of decision making are obtained:
a)      Basis of planning: Decision-making is an integral part of the planning process. Planning can be effective only through proper decision.
b)      Effective control: The function of control can be properly executed through an effective decision-making process. This is due to the fact that in case any deviation takes places between the standard result and the actual result, proper decisions has to be taken for the control process.
c)       Solution to hard problems: Proper and sound decisions can help to solve harsh and complicated problems.
d)      Best result: Decision-making is the right manner can give best result to a problem. The best alternative can be selected from among various alternatives.
e)      Basis of success: The decision-making process has its relation with other managerial functions. So, its effective implementation will provide the basis of success for other functions also.
Or
(b) Explain the meaning and process of ‘Management by Objectives’ (MBO).                    4+10=14
Ans: Meaning of MBO: The concept Management by Objectives was coined by Peter Drucker in 1954. As per this concept, the organisational goals are broken down to different level objectives and assigned to individuals at different level in order to have the organisational goal. It is a technique and philosophy of management based on converting an organisational objective into a personal   objective on the presumption that establishing personal objectives makes an employee committed, which leads to better performance.
Koontz defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner, consciously directed towards the effective and Efficient achievement of organisational objectives.”
According to George Odiome,  “MBO is a process whereby superior and subordinate managers of an Organisation jointly define its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms Of results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members."
According to John Humble, “MBO is a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the company's needs to clarify and achieve its profits and growth goals with the manager's need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business."
Objectives of MBO
Objectives of MBO can be classified under the following heads:
1.       Primary Objectives: Primary objectives are related to the company and not to individuals. Earning of profits out of providing goods and services to the customers is the primary objective of a company.
2.       Secondary Objectives: These objectives help in achieving primary objectives. Secondary objectives, like primary objectives, are impersonal in nature. The goal of adding new products will be a secondary goal which will help in achieving the primary objective.
3.       Individual Objectives: These are the goals which individual members in an organization try to achieve no daily, weekly, monthly or yearly basis. These objectives are achievable as subordinate to primary and secondary goals.
4.       Social Objectives: These are the goals of an organization towards society. These include the obligations required by the community, government agencies etc. These also include goals intended to further social, physical and cultural improvement of the society.
5. (a) What is ‘span of management’? Briefly discuss the factors determining the span of management. 4+10=14
Ans: SPAN OF MANAGEMENT
In the words of Spriegal, "Span of control means the number of people reporting directly to an authority. The principle of span of control implies that no single executive should have more people looking to him for guidance and leadership than he can reasonably be expected to serve. The span of supervision is also known as span of control, span of management, span of responsibility, span of authority and span of direction.
Factors influencing the span of Management
                There are number of factors that influence or determine the span of Management in a particular organisation, the most important of these are as follows:
1.       The capacity and ability of the executive: The characteristics and abilities such as leadership, administrative capabilities; ability to communicate, to judge, to listen, to guide and inspire, physical vigour, etc. differ from person to person. A person having better abilities can manage effectively a large number of subordinates as compared to the one who has lesser capabilities.
2.       Competence and training of subordinates: Subordinates who are skilled, efficient, knowledgeable, trained and competent require less supervision, and therefore, the supervisor may have a wider span in such cases as compared to inexperienced and untrained subordinates who requires greater supervision.
3.       Nature of Work: Nature and importance of work to be supervised is another factor that influences the span of supervision. The work involving routine, repetitive, unskilled and standardized operations will not call much attention and time on the part of the supervisor.
4.       Time available for supervision: The capacity of a person to supervise and control a large number of persons is also limited on account of time available at his disposal to supervise them. The span of control would be generally narrow at the higher level of management because top manager have to spend their major time on planning, organising, directing and controlling and the time available at their disposal for supervision will be less.
5.       Degree of Decentralization and Extent of Delegation: If a manager clearly delegates authority to undertake a well-defined task, a well trained subordinate can do it with a minimum of supervisor's time and attention.
6.       Effectiveness of communication system: Faulty communication puts a heavy burden on manager's time and reduces the span of control.
7.       Quality of Planning: Effective planning helps to reduce frequent calls on the superior for explanation, instructions and guidance and thereby saves in time available at the disposal of the superior enabling him to have a wider span.
8.       Degree of Physical Dispersion: If all persons to be supervised are located at the same place and within the direct supervision of the manager, he can supervise relatively more people as compared to the one who has to supervise people located at different places.
9.       Assistance of Experts: the span of supervision may be wide where the services of experts are available to the subordinate on various aspects of work. In case such services are not provided in the organisation, the supervisor has to spend a lot of time in providing assistance to the workers himself and a such the span of control would be narrow.
Or
(b) Describe the nature and process of organizing.                                          7+7=14
Ans: Nature or characteristics of organisation
From the study of the various definitions given by different management experts we get the following information about the characteristics or nature of organization:
1)      Division of Labour: Every organisation is characterized by the division of work.  The total efforts of the group are divided into different functions and each function is assigned the function for which he is observed to be suited best.
2)      Co-ordination: As different persona are assigned different functions and all these functions aim at achieving organisational goals, hence necessary relationships are established between them so as to co-ordinate all the activities of all the people of the organisation.
3)      Objectives: Organisations exist to achieve objectives. Without objectives organisations cannot exist for a long period.
4)      Authority and Responsibility structure: In an organisation the positions are so ranked that each of them is subordinate to the one above it and is superior to the one below it.  Each position is delegated necessary authority and responsibility so as to enable it functions effectively.
5)      Communication: Every organisation has its own channels or methods of communication.  Effective communication is vital for success of management.
6)      Organisation is a Machine of Management: Organisation is considered to be a machine of management because the efficiency of all the functions depends on an effective organisation. In the absence of organisation no function can be performed in a planned manner.
7)      Organisation is a Universal Process: Organisation is needed both in business and non business organisations. Not only this, organisation will be needed where two or mom than two people work jointly. Therefore, organisation has the quality of universality.
8)      Organisation is a Dynamic Process: Organisation is related to people and the knowledge and experience of the people undergo a change. The impact of this change affects the various functions of the organisations.
Steps or Process of Organising
Organization is the process of establishing relationship among the members of the enterprise. The relationships are created in terms of authority and responsibility. To organize is to harmonize, coordinate or arrange in a logical and orderly manner. Each member in the organization is assigned a specific responsibility or duty to perform and is granted the corresponding authority to perform his duty. The managerial function of organising consists in making a rational division of work into groups of activities and tying together the positions representing grouping of activities so as to achieve a rational, well coordinated and orderly structure for the accomplishment of work. The various steps involved in this process are:
a) Determination of Objectives: It is the first step in building up an organization. Organization is always related to certain objectives. Therefore, it is essential for the management to identify the objectives before starting any activity. Organization structure is built on the basis of the objectives of the enterprise. That means, the structure of the organization can be determined by the management only after knowing the objectives to be accomplished through the organization. This step helps the management not only in framing the organization structure but also in achieving the enterprise objectives with minimum cost and efforts.
b) Enumeration of Objectives: If the members of the group are to pool their efforts effectively, there must be proper division of the major activities. The first step in organising group effort is the division of the total job into essential activities. Each job should be properly classified and grouped. This will enable the people to know what is expected of them as members of the group and will help in avoiding duplication of efforts. For example, the work of an industrial concern may be divided into the following major functions – production, financing, personnel, sales, purchase, etc.
c) Classification of Activities: The next step will be to classify activities according to similarities and common purposes and functions and taking the human and material resources into account. Then, closely related and similar activities are grouped into divisions and departments and the departmental activities are further divided into sections.
d) Assignment of Duties: Here, specific job assignments are made to different subordinates for ensuring a certainty of work performance. Each individual should be given a specific job to do according to his ability and made responsible for that. He should also be given the adequate authority to do the job assigned to him.
e) Delegation of Authority: Since so many individuals work in the same organization, it is the responsibility of management to lay down structure of relationship in the organization. Authority without responsibility is a dangerous thing and similarly responsibility without authority is an empty vessel. Everybody should clearly know to whom he is accountable; corresponding to the responsibility authority is delegated to the subordinates for enabling them to show work performance. This will help in the smooth working of the enterprise by facilitating delegation of responsibility and authority.
6. (a) “Planning without control is meaningless and control without planning is a waste.” Judge the authenticity of the statement.                         14
Ans: Planning is the primary function of management.  Planning concentrates on setting and achieving objectives through optimum use of available resources.  Planning is necessary for any organisation for its survival growth and prosperity under competitive and dynamic environment.  Planning is a continuous process to keep organisation as a successful going concern,
In the words of: Koontz and O’Donnel – “Planning is deciding in advance, what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who is to do it.  It bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go.”
Allen – “Management planning involves the development of forecasts, objectives, policies programmes, procedures, schedules and budgets.”
Haynes and Massie - Planning is a decision making process of a special kind.  It is an intellectual process in which creative thinking and imagination is essential.”
Alfred and Beatty - “Planning is the thinking process, the organized foresight, the vision based on fact and experience that is required for intelligent action.
Introduction to Management Control
Control is one of the managerial functions. These functions start with planning and end at controlling. The other functions like organising, staffing, directing act as the connecting like between planning and controlling. Planning will be successful only if the progress planning and controlled, Planning involves setting up of goals and objectives while controlling seeks to ensure.
In the words of Koontz and O'Donnel, “The measurement and correction of the performance of activities of subordinates in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and plan devised to attain them are being accomplished." The accomplishment of organisational goals is the main aim of every management. The performance of subordinates should be constantly watched to ensure proper implementation of plans. Co-ordination is the channel through which goals can be achieved and necessary.
According to Henry Fayol, “In an undertaking, control consists in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan adopted, the instructions issued and principles established. It has to point out weakness and errors in order to rectify them and prevent recurrence”.
Thus, controlling implies determining and stating specifically what is to be accomplished, then checking performance against such standards prescribed with a view to supplying the corrective action required to achieve the planned objectives. The end objective of controlling is, therefore, to ensure that the people’s   effort   in   the   organisation   is   continuously   directed   towards   the attainment of the predetermined objectives.
Though, Planning is different from controlling, they are closely related to each other. The relationship between planning and controlling can be divided into the following two parts.
(i) Interdependence between Planning and Controlling.
(ii) Difference between Planning and Controlling.
(i) Interdependence between Planning and Controlling. Planning is meaningless without controlling and controlling is blind without Planning. Both the aspects of the interdependence of planning and control have been discussed below:
(a) Planning is meaningless without Controlling: if the process of controlling is taken away from management no person working in the enterprise will take it seriously to work according to the plans and consequently, the plans will fail.
(b) Controlling is blind without Planning: Under the system of controlling actual work performance is compared with the standards. Hence, if the standards are not determined there is no justification left for control and the standards are determined under planning.
(ii) Difference between Planning and Controlling: Yes, planning and controlling are incomplete and ineffective without each other but it doesn’t mean that both are not independent. Reasons are:
(a) Planning is looking Ahead whereas Controlling is Looking Back: Plans are always formulated for future and determined the future course of action for the achievement of objectives laid down. On the contrary, controlling is looking back because under it a manager tries to find out, after the work is completed, whether it has been done according to the standards or not.
(b) Planning is the first function and Controlling is the last function of Managerial Process: the managerial process moves in a definite sequence- like planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling happens to be the last step.
Or
(b) Define leadership. Discuss the qualities of a good leader.                    4+10=14
Ans: Leadership is the ability to build up confidence and deal among people and to create an urge in them to be led. To be a successful leader, a manager must possess the qualities of foresight, drive, initiative, self-confidence and personal integrity. Different situations may demand different types of leadership.
Leadership means influencing the behaviour of the people at work towards realizing the specified goals. It is the ability to use non-coercive (no force) influence on the motivation, activities and goals (MAG) of others in order to achieve the objectives of the organisation.
Koontz and 0' Donnel “Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal”.
George R Terry “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives”.
Qualities of a Good Leader
1.       Patience: Patience is the capacity to face difficult situations, hardships or inconvenience without making a single complaint. A good leader must show patience while waiting for expected results, facing difficult situations and taking important decisions. He must avoid taking hasty decisions and actions.
2.       Good Personality: A good personality is a combination of physical, mental and social qualities. Good personality helps a leader to influence his followers. Attractive physique and good manners add an advantage to the leader's personality.
3.       Self-confidence: A good leader must have self confidence. This quality is necessary for facing challenging situations and for solving problems easily and effectively.
4.       Human Skills: A good leader must have essential social and human skills. That is, he must understand people. This quality is necessary for dealing with different types of persons and social groups.
5.       Judgment skills: A good leader should be able to examine problems in right perspective. His judgment and decision making abilities should be superior to others. He should be able to form opinions and judge based on facts and not be prejudiced
6.       Communication skills: A good leader should be able to communicate the goals and procedures of the organisation clearly, precisely and effectively to the subordinates. Only then will it be possible for him to convince, persuade and stimulate subordinates to action.
7.       Listening skills: People tend to avoid a leader who does not listen. Hence a good leader in one who can listen to other peoples problems. He should be able to create a culture whereby people can be frank with him and give him information and also give him feedback about himself, which can help him to improve himself.
8.       Inspiring skills: A good leader should be able to inspire people to deal with the “why” question. He should not just command and control but be able to lead the people and get them involved to work together as a team.
9.       Administrative Skills: A good leader must have an administrative ability. This means, he must be able to get the work done through his followers. He must know how to plan, organize and control the work of his followers.
10.   Discipline: A good leader must be a disciplined person. This means he must have respect for the rule and regulations of the organisation. This is because his followers will follow his example.
11.   Initiative: A good leader must always take an initiative. This means he should do the right thing at the right time without being told by others. He must be able to construct and implement his own plan.
12.   Intelligence: A good leader must be smart and intelligent. That is, he should have a good educational background and sound technical knowledge. He should be more intelligent than his followers. If not, his followers will not respect him. This will have a bad effect on his performance.
13.   Innovative:  A good leader must have an art of innovation. That is, he must have a good imagination and visualization skills. He must develop new ideas and tactics to solve problems. He must combine the new ideas with the old ideas.
(OLD COURSE)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
1. Answer the following questions as directed:
a)         Write the full form of POSDCORB.                                                  1
b)         Centralization is same with decentralization.                                             1              (Write True or False)
c)          Authority can be delegated, but _____ cannot be delegated.                           1              (Fill in the blank)
d)         Who proposed the ‘need theory’ of motivation?                                    1
e)         Give the meaning of ‘authority’.                                                     1
f)          _____ is determination of future courses of action.                              1              (Fill in the blank)
g)         State two limitations of planning.                                                   2
2. Write short notes on (any four):                                                           4x4=16
a)         Significance of organizing.
b)         Process of decision-making.
c)          Bases of departmentation.
d)         Planning premises.
e)         Importance of managerial control.
3. (a) How would you define the term ‘business management’? Explain its significance.                                 4+7=11
Or
(b) Evaluate the contribution made by Henry Fayol to the growth of management thought.     11
4. (a) Define planning. Describe its significance.                                                                 4+7=14
Or
(b) Discuss the meaning and advantages of ‘management by objectives.’                                         4+7=11
5. (a) What do you mean by ‘span of management’? Explain its significance.                        4+7=11
Or
(b) Discuss the meaning and process of organizing.                                      4+7=11
6. (a) Write an explanatory note on ‘motivation’.                                              11
Or
(b) Discuss the qualities of a good leader.                                                         11
7. (a) Discuss in detail the steps involved in a control process.                     12
Or
(b) Explain the features of a good control system.                                        12
***

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