Environmental Science 333 Solved Assignment 2021-22 | NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22

 NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22
Environmental Science 333 Solved Assignment 2021-22
Tutor Marked Assignment
Max Marks: 20

Note: (i) All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.         2

(a) What do you understand the term buffering capacity of the earth and give reason why is it so important/ necessary for the survival of living beings? (See Lesson-1)

Ans.:- The most unique feature of the earth is its buffering action due to which a neutral pH (pH7) is maintained in the soil and water bodies. The neutral pH is congenial for the survival and sustenance of living organisms.

Earth gets light from the sun, the star nearest to earth, approximately 150 million km away. It is the ultimate source of energy

(b) Why did agriculture and domestication of animals evolved simultaneously? Give reasons in support of your answer. (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

पर्यावरण विज्ञान (333) | Environmental Science 333 NIOS Free Solved Assignment 2021 – 22 (Hindi Medium)

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.          2

(a) "Urbanisation led to increase consumption of natural resources and waste generation" Give reasons in support of your answer. (See Lesson-8)

Ans: As large number of people permanently settles in small areas to form cities and towns, this leads to increase in the consumption of natural resources. Land availability dwindles as buildings for housing purposes come up. Increased water requirement of the growing urban population causes a sharp decline in water availability. Excessive withdrawal of ground water leads to ground water depletion. To meet the growing requirement of water, result is drawn from distant areas thus disturbing the routes of natural water bodies and affecting ecosystems.

Urbanization and industrialization produces colossal quantities of waste. Quantity of Solid waste from domestic and industrial sources is growing problem. They may be biodegradable when they may be used for generation of biogas. The no biodegradable waste is dumped in landfills.

 (b) Pesticides and Chemical fertilizers are being frequently used in modern agriculture. Why do we use these and how do they differ in the function? (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.       2

(a) Fish are the good source of proteins and pisciculture (fish forming) has increased the yield of fish to an extreme extent. Due to this expansion, fish population is suffering. Mention any four harmful effects. (See Lesson-20)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

(b) In which ecosystem do Sunderban mangroves belong? Name its main plants and animals found in this region. Mention its important characteristics. (See Lesson-6)

Ans: Sunderban mangroves belong to Terrestrial ecosystem in India. Vegetation growing at altitudes above 3600 m is usually known as alpine vegetation and it can be noticed that with the increment of the altitude, the plants show stunted growth. The trees like silver fir, pine, juniper and birch belong to this category. The alpine grasslands are mainly found at higher altitudes in this region. The people belonging to the tribal groups like Gujjar and Bakarwal make extensive use of this region. The vegetations like lichen and mosses are also found in high altitudinal regions. Sundari is a renowned mangrove tree, mainly found in the tidal forests and it is after this tree that the name Sundarban has been entitled to the forested parts of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.                 4

(a) Mention efforts that have been taken by Sulabh International to restore human dignity of scavengers in society in detail. (See Lesson-25)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

(b)  Describe the effects of excessive use of agrochemicals in the crop lands on the environment. (See Lesson-10)

Ans: Agricultural chemicals especially fertilizers and pesticides pollute the soil. Fertilizers in the runoff water from these fields can cause eutrophication in water bodies. Pesticides are highly toxic chemicals which affect humans and other animals adversely causing respiratory problems, cancer and death.

To control soil pollution, it is essential to stop the use of plastic bags and instead use bags of degradable materials like paper and cloth. Sewage should be treated properly before using as fertilizer and as landfills. The organic matter from domestic, agricultural and other waste should be segregated and subjected to vermicomposting which generates useful manure as a byproduct. The industrial wastes prior to disposal should be properly treated for removing hazardous materials. Biomedical waste should be separately collected and incinerated in proper incinerators.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.            4

(a) An idea of environmental ethics should be inculcated in the mind of every citizen of the country. Suggest any four ways in which it can be done. (See Lesson-26)

Ans: It is common knowledge that we acquire habits and attitudes in our childhood. The values inculcated during childhood stay lifelong. Therefore, it is extremely important to inculcate respect for the environment in every child. If children are exposed to live issues, they understand and try to resolve them when they grow up to be administrators, policy makers, teachers, home-makers or politicians.

In the school curriculum activities such as (i) growing plants and taking care of them (ii) visits to national parks and sanctuaries (iii) creating stories/ poems/ plays on nature conservation, should be included. Tree plantations for ‘greening schools’ and its neighbourhood, weeding lawns, making attractive posters and messages related to environment should become competitive events every year for various classes.

 Nature study should inculcate in the children love for living beings and urge for maintaining the surroundings. The ‘land ethic’ is an idea that should be created in every citizen’s mind. According to this, each person is a citizen of the land and thus responsible for its “health”. Health is the capacity of land for self-renewal. Conservation is our effort to understand and preserve this capacity.

(b) What are the reasons for modifying the natural ecosystem by human beings? Mention any four ways in which plantation forest differs from a natural ecosystem.

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary 

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:      6

(a) A glacier broke off at Joshimath in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand on 7th February 2021. This led to massive flood in the Dhauli Ganga and Rishi Ganga rivers. Due to this avalanche two hydropower projects have severely damaged. Prepare a project report for this deadly avalanche with respect to the following questions.

(i) What are the main causes for this deadly avalanche in Himalayan region?

(ii) Mention estimate damage in terms to property loss and human life as well as affected region.

(iii) In there any evidence for this type of happening in this region before?

(iv) Discuss about the relief efforts done by central government, state government and local body.

(v) What precaution can be taken in future? For writing this report, you can collect information from internet/print media/electronic media or you can also prepared a scrap book/flip chart/flip card/PowerPoint presentation.

Ans: (i) What are the main causes for this deadly avalanche in Himalayan region?

This deadly avalanche in Himalayan region Joshimath in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand on 7th February 2021 has shocked the world. At least 200 people have died after an avalanche swept through a base Dhauli Ganga and Rishi Ganga rivers. This tragedy is one of the deadliest avalanches in history.

Climate change, human activity, and natural factors have combined to make this deadly avalanche inevitable. This is just another example of how climate change is affecting our life in different ways.

The main causes for this deadly avalanche are:

- Climate change (changing weather patterns)

- Human activity (construction on nearby mountains)

- Natural factors (subsidence caused by groundwater extraction).

(ii) Mention estimate damage in terms to property loss and human life as well as affected region.

The deadly avalanche in Himalayan has shown just how dangerous the rise in construction can be. It has ravaged several villages and towns while killing almost 200 people. The avalanche has cost over 2 million USDs worth of property damage while leading to human lives lost and traumatizing people who still reside there. Also two hydropower projects in that region have severely damaged.

(iii) In there any evidence for this type of happening in this region before?

Avalanches and flash flooding in the Himalayas are common during summer and monsoon months, as melting snow and heavy rains combine. But an incident which happens on 7th February 2021 at Joshimath in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand are rare so early in the year, alarming scientists studying climate change that is rapidly heating the world’s highest mountains.

Scientists are still studying the details of exactly what happened, but said heavy snowfall followed by bright sunshine led to snow-melt in the area

(iv) Discuss about the relief efforts done by central government, state government and local body.

Ans: Two teams of National Disaster Relief Force (NDRF) are enroute and three additional teams have been flown in from Hindon which will reach the spot later in the night. More than 200 ITBP personnel are on the spot, and one column and Engineering Task Force (ETF) of Army, with all rescue equipment have been deployed. Navy divers are being flown in and aircrafts/ helicopters of the Indian Air Force (IAF) are on standby, according to National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC).

At the same time, the concerned agencies of the Centre and the State were asked to keep a strict vigil on the situation, and a team from DRDO, who monitor avalanches, is being flown in for surveillance and reconnaissance. MD, NTPC has been asked to reach the affected site immediately.

PM has approved an ex-gratia of Rs. 2 lakh each from PMNRF for the next of kin of those who have lost their lives due to the tragic avalanche caused by a Glacier breach in Chamoli, Uttarakhand. Rs. 50,000 would be given to those seriously injured.

(v) What precaution can be taken in future?

Ans: Precautions to be taken before and at the time of glacier burst and flood:

a)    Avoid building in flood prone areas unless you elevate and reinforce your home.

b)   Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to flooding.

c)    Install "Check Valves" in sewer traps to prevent floodwater from backing up into the drains of your home.

d)   Contact community officials to find out if they are planning to construct barriers (levees, beams and floodwalls) to stop floodwater from entering the homes in your area.

e)   Seal the walls in your basement with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage.

f)     Listen to the radio or television for information.

g)    Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move.

h)   Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons, and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without such typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain.

(b) The first case of COVID-19 was observed in Wuhan China. Later on, this disease spreads all over the world in the form of Pandemic. Most of the countries had decleared total lockdown in their areas. Prepare a brief report with respect to the following points.

(i) Scientific name of organism and symptoms

(ii) Cause-transmission

(iii) Prevention/Precautions

(iv) Diagnosis

(v) Treatment

(vi) Myths – (Pros. and Cons)

Write/share your experience about your life style. Do you observe any changes in the environment during this lockdown, If yes, share this experience also.

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

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