Staffing and Motivation | Management Principles & Application Notes | Unit 4 | CBCS Pattern

Management Principles and Application Notes
B.Com Notes (CBCS Pattern/Non CBCS Pattern)
Unit 4: Staffing and Motivation (Part A)

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In this post I have given a brief explanation of Staffing and Motivation. These notes are useful B.Com 3rd Semester Students under CBCS Pattern. Some of the topics are not yet included in these notes which will be added very soon.

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Table of Contents

1. Staffing – Meaning, Features and Importance

2. Process of Staffing

3. Meaning of Motivation

4. Nature or Characteristics of Motivation

5. Importance of Motivation

6. Motivation Theories – Concept, Criticism and Difference

a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

b) Herzberg theory of Motivation

c) McGregor’s Theory X and Y

d) Vroom’s Expectancy  theory

Meaning, Features and Importance of Staffing

Meaning: It is the process of management which is concerned with obtaining and maintaining a satisfactory and satisfied work force. It involves finding the right person for the right job having the right qualification, doing the right job at the right time.

In the words of French Wendell, “Staffing or Human resource management is the recruitment, selection, utilisation and motivation of human resource of the organisation”.

Features of Staffing:

1. It deals with human resources.

2. It is concerned with helping employees to develop their abilities.

3. It is concerned with finding the right person for the right job.

Need and Importance of Staffing:            2020

1. Obtaining competent personnel: Proper staffing helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs.

2. Higher performance: Proper staffing ensures higher performance by putting right person on the right job.

3. Continuous survival and growth: Proper staffing ensures continuous survival and growth of the enterprise, research & development, innovation.

4. Optimum utilization of human resources: Proper staffing helps to ensure optimum utilization of human resources. It prevents underutilisation of personnel and high labour costs. At the same time, it avoids disruption of work.

5. Improve job satisfaction: Proper staffing improves job satisfaction and morale of employee through objective assessment and fair rewarding of their contribution.

Process of Staffing

Steps involved in Staffing Process:

1)      Enumerating man power requirement: Staffing process begins with the estimation of man power requirement which means finding out number and type of employees need by the org. in future.                     

2)      Recruitment: After man power planning, the manager tries that more and more people should apply for the job so that the org. can get more choice and select better candidates.

3)      Placement and Orientation: Placement refers to placing the right person on the right job for which he is selected. Orientation refers to introducing the new employees with the existing employees.

4)      Selection refers to choosing the most suitable candidate to fill the vacant job position. It is a negative process because a number of candidates are rejected under it.

5)      Training and Development: The process of training helps to improve the job knowledge and skill of the employees. Training and Development not only motivate the employees but these improve efficiency of work also.

6)      Performance Appraisal: At this step the capability of the employees is judged and for that his actual work performance is compared with the work assigned to him. Performance and career planning: It is a process through which employees get better salary, status, position and also get promotion to higher post.

7)      Compensation: For deciding the compensation the works are evaluated. Compensation must be reasonable and related with the work.

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Introduction: Motivation

The word motivation is derived from ‘motive', which means an active form of a desire, craving or need that must be satisfied. Motivation is the key to organisational effectiveness. The manager in general has to get the work done through others. These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organisational objectives.

According to George R. Terry, "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action."

According to Berelson and Steiner “A motive is an inner state that energizes activates, or moves and directs or channels behavior goals".

According to Lills "It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon one's will and promoting or driving it to action".

According to Encyclopedia of Management  "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness."

Nature/Characteristics of Motivation

                Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual. A person feels the lack of certain needs, to satisfy which he feels working more. The need satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does. From definitions given earlier the following inferences can be derived:

a)      Motivation is an inner psychological force, which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner.

 

b)      The motivation process is influenced by personality traits, learning abilities, perception and competence of an individual.

 

c)       A highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others.

d)      Motivation originates from the-needs and wants of an individual. It is a tension of lacking something in his mind, which forces him to work more efficiently.

 

e)      Motivation is also a process of stimulating and channelizing the energy of an individual for achieving set goals.

f)       Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. Highly motivated employees get higher satisfaction, which may lead to higher efficiency.

 

g)      Motivating force an^ its degree, may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality, needs, competence and other factors.

h)      The process of Motivation helps the manager in analyzing and understanding human behavior and finding but how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behavior.

i)        Motivation may be positive as well as negative. Positive motivation includes incentives, rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment, fear, use of force etc.

j)        The motivation procedure contributes to and boosts up the morale of the employees. A high degree of motivation may lead to high morale.

Importance of Motivation

a)      High Performance: - Motivated employee’s writ put maximum efforts for achieving organisational goals. The untapped reservoirs of physical and mental abilities are taped to the maximum. Better performance will also result in higher productivity. The cost of production can also be brought down if productivity is raised.

b)      Low employee Turnover and Absenteeism: -When the employees are not satisfied with their job then they will leave it whenever they get an alternative offer. The dissatisfaction among employees also increases absenteeism. The employment training of new employees costs dearly to the organisation.

c)       Better Organisational Images: -Those enterprises which offer better monetary and non-monetary facilities to their employees have a better image among them. Such concerns are successful in attracting better qualified and experienced persons. Since there is a better man-power to development programme, the employees will like to join such organisations. Motivational efforts will simplify personnel functions also.

d)      Better Industrial Relations: -A good motivational system will create job satisfaction among employees. The employment will offer them better service conditions and various other incentives. There will be an atmosphere of confidence among employers and employees. There will be no reason for conflict and cordial relations among both sides will create a healthy atmosphere. So motivation among employees will lead to better industrial relations.

e)      Acceptability to Change: -The changing social an industrial situations will require changes and improvements in the working of enterprises. There will be a need to introduce new and better methods of work from time to time. Generally employees resist changes for fear of an adverse effect on their employment.

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MOTIVATION THEORIES

a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. This theory, popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: physiological, security, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization needs. The figure 9.1 shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs

 

Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance, starting from the bottom of the hierarchy. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs. When these needs are satisfied, he is motivated and 'moves up' the hierarchy to satisfy security needs. This 'moving up process continues until the individual reaches the self-actualization level.

a)      Physiological needs: Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food, sex, water and air. In organisational settings, most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself, which provides employees with rest rooms, adequate lighting, comfortable temperatures and ventilation.

 

b)      Security or safety needs: Security or safety needs refer to the requirements for a secure physical and emotional environment. Examples include the desire for adequate housing and clothing, the need to be free from worry about money and job security and the desire for safe working conditions. Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity, a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package.

 

c)       Social needs: Belonging or social needs are related to the, social aspect of human life. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers. For most people these needs are satisfied by a combination of family and community relationships and friendships on the job. Managers can help ensure the 'satisfaction of these important needs by allowing social interaction and by making employees feel like part of a team or work group.

 

d)      Esteem needs: Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs:

i.         The need for a positive self-image and self-respect.

ii.       The need for recognition and respect from others.

Organisations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. At a more fundamental level, organisations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment.

e)      Self-actualization needs: At the top of the hierarchy are those needs, which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs. These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal, self-actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. Therefore, an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end.

However, an organisation can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs. For instance, an organisation can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employee’s participation in decision-making process and by providing them with an opportunity to learn new things about their jobs and organisation. This process of contributing to actual organisational performance helps employees experience personal growth and development associated with self-actualizing.

Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Theory

A number of research studies have been undertaken to see the validity of hierarchy of needs. Lawler and Suttle collected data on 187 Managers in two different organisations for a period of six months to one year. No evidence was found to support Maslow's theory. They found there were two levels of needs-biological and other needs- and that other needs would emerge only when biological needs were reasonably satisfied. A survey conducted in India of 200 factory worker revealed that they give top priority to job security, earnings and personal benefits-all lower other needs.

It is generally seen that needs do not follow Maslow's hierarchy. The hierarchy is determined by individuals differently. They proceed to follow their own pattern of needs satisfaction. Some people may try for self-actuating needs rather than lower needs. For some persons esteem needs are more important than social needs.

There is no cause effect relation between and need and behavior. A particular need may cause behavior in different ways in different person. Similarly, one particular behavior may result due to different needs. It is said that higher needs motivate a person when lower needs are reasonably satisfied. The word 'reasonably satisfied' is a subjective matter. The level of satisfaction may be different for persons.

b) Herzberg theory of Motivation

Another popular need-based approach to motivation is the dual-structure approach developed by Frederick Herzberg. This is also known as Two-factor Theory. Herzberg developed this approach after interviewing 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburg. He asked them to recall such occasions when they had been dissatisfied and less motivated. He found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction. For instance, an individual who identified 'low pay' as causing dissatisfaction did not necessarily mention 'high pay' as a cause of satisfaction. Instead, several other factors, such as recognition or accomplishment, were cited as causing satisfaction.

This finding suggests that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are at opposite ends of a single scale. Employees would, therefore, be satisfied, dissatisfied or somewhere in between. Herzberg argued that attitudes and motivation consists of a dual structure. One structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction. The other structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no satisfaction.

Herzberg identified two sets of factors responsible for causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The factors influencing satisfaction are called motivation factors or motivators, which are related specifically to the job itself and the factors causing dissatisfaction, are called hygiene factors, which are related to the work environment in which the job is performed.

Motivators

a)      Achievement

b)      Recognition

c)       Advancement

d)      The work itself

e)      The possibility of personal growth

f)       Responsibility       

Hygiene or Maintenance Factors

a)      Company policies

b)      Technical supervision

c)       Interpersonal relations with supervisor

d)      Interpersonal relations with peers

e)      Interpersonal relations with subordinates

f)       Salary

g)      Job security

h)      Personal life

i)        Work conditions

j)        Status

Based on these findings, Herzberg recommended that managers seeking to motivate employees should first make sure that hygiene factors are taken care of and that employees are not dissatisfied with pay, security and working conditions. Once a manager has eliminated employee dissatisfaction, Hertzberg recommends focusing on a different set of factors to increase motivation, by improving opportunities for advancement, recognition, advancement and growth. Specifically, he recommends job enrichment as a means of enhancing the availability of motivation factors.

Criticism

                Although widely accepted by managers, Hertzberg’s dual structure approach however suffers from certain drawbacks. Other researchers who measured satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on different aspects reached very different conclusions. They have also criticized Herzberg's theory for its inability to define the relationship between satisfaction and motivation and to pay enough attention to differences between individuals. Hence, at present Herzberg's theory is not held in high esteem by researchers in the field of motivation. The theory, however, had a major impact on managers and has played a key role in increasing their awareness of motivation and its importance in type work place.

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Difference between Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory and Herzberg’s motivation Hygiene Theory

1. Meaning:

Maslow's theory is based on the concept of human needs and their satisfaction.

Hertzberg's theory is based on the use of motivators which include achievement, recognition and opportunity for growth.

2. Basis of Theory:

Maslow's theory is based on the hierarchy of human needs. He identified five sets of human needs (on priority basis) and their satisfaction in motivating employees.

Hertzberg refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory. Hygiene factors are dissatisfies while motivating factors motivate subordinates. Hierarchical arrangement of needs is not given.

3. Nature of Theory:

Maslow's theory is rather simple and descriptive. The theory is based long experience about human needs.

Hertzberg's theory is more prescriptive. It suggests the motivating factors which can be used effectively. This theory is based on actual information collected by Hertzberg by interviewing 200 engineers and accountants.

4. Applicability of Theory:

Maslow's theory is most popular and widely cited theory of motivation and has wide applicability. It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a big motivating factor.

Herzberg's theory is an extension of Maslow's theory of motivation. Its applicability is narrow. It is applicable to rich and developed countries where money is less important motivating factor.

5. Descriptive or Prescriptive

Maslow's theory or model is descriptive in nature.

Herzberg's theory or model is prescriptive in nature.

6. Motivators

According to Maslow's model, any need can act as motivator provided it is not satisfied or relatively less satisfied.

In the dual factor model of Hertzberg, hygiene factors (lower level needs) do not act as motivators. Only the higher order needs (achievement, recognition, challenging work) act as motivators.

c) McGregor’s Theory X and Y

Doughlas McGregor introduced these two theories i.e., Theory X and Theory Y, based on two distinct views of human beings. He proposed, at opposite extremes, two pairs of assumptions about human beings which he thought were implied by the actions of the mangers. Theory X deals with one extreme, based on one set of assumptions and Theory y deals with another extreme based on another set of assumptions. These theories are not based on any research, but according to McGregor, these are intuitive deduction.

Theory X: -This theory is based on the traditional approach to human behavior. The assumptions generally, held by the managers in their theory are: -

a)      The average human beings inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it, whenever possible

b)      A the employee are lazy, they must be controlled, coerced, threatened with punishment to achieve goals, to which they are indifferent

c)       Average employee will try to avoid responsibility and seek formal directions whenever possible, because they have relatively little ambition.

Theory y: -This approach assumes that management by direction and control is questionable method for motivating such people whose physiological and social needs have been satisfied and whose social; esteem and self actualization needs are becoming more important. For such people, Theory Y seems to be applicable, which is the contrast of Theory X. This theory makes the following assumptions about people:

a)      The average human being does not inherently dislike work. He can view work as natural or enjoyable as rest or play

b)      Employees will exercise self direction and self control in the attainment of the objectives to which they are committed

c)       Given proper working conditions, average person can learn to accept and even to seek responsibility

d)      Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement

e)      All the people are capable of making innovative and creative decision and the decision making is not the sole province of the people in management position.

d) Vroom’s Expectancy  theory

Victor Vroom made an important contribution to the understanding of the concept of motivation and the decision process that people use to determine how much effort they will expend on their jobs. He said that a person’s motivation towards an action at any time would be determined by an individual’s perception that a certain type of action would lead to a specific outcome and his personal preference for this outcome. This model is based on the belief that motivation is determined by the nature of the reward expect to get an a result of their job performance. There are three variable in Vroom’s model given in the form of an equation. Since the model is a multiplier, all the three variable must have high positive value to imply motivated performance choices. If any of the variable is zero the probability of motivated performance tends to be zero.

MOTIVATION = VALENCE X EXPECTANCY X INSTRUMENTALITY

All these three variable are explained as follows:

1)      Valence: Valence means the attraction (or repulsion) of an outcome to the individual. Whenever an individual has preference for a reward valence is the strength of that preference.

2)      Expectancy: Expectancy is also referred to as the Effort-Performance Probability. It refers to the extent to which the person believes his efforts will lead to the first level outcome i.e. completion of the task.

3)      Instrumentality (Performance-Reward Probability): Instrumentality refers to the probabilities attached by the individual to each possible performance-outcome alternative just as the individual previously assigned probabilities to various levels of effort leading to different levels of performance (expectancy).

The plus points of this theory are:

a)      The expectancy model is highly useful in understanding organizational behaviour. It can improve the relationship between the individual and the organizational goals. This model explains how individuals’ goals influence his efforts and like need-based models reveal that individual behaviour is goal oriented.

b)      The expectancy theory is a cognitive theory, which values human dignity. Individuals are considered rational human beings who can anticipate their future on the basis of their beliefs and expectations.

c)       This theory helps the managers in looking beyond what Maslow and Herzberg implied. According to him motivation does not mean satisfying the unsatisfied needs. The managers must make it possible for an employee to see that effort can result in appropriate need satisfying rewards.

Despite these plus points, there are some drawbacks of Vroom’s expectancy model as given below:

a)      Vroom’s theory is difficult to research and apply in practice. This is evident by the fact that there have been a very few research studies designed specifically to test Vroom’s theory.

b)      This theory assumes man to be a rational human being who makes all the decisions consciously. But there are numerous instances where decision are taken with no conscious thought. This is particularly true for routine jobs.

c)       Although, it is an important theory of motivation but it is quite complex. Many managers, in actual organizational situations, do not have the time or sources to use a complex system on the job.

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