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IGNOU Solved Question Papers: FST - 01 (December' 2013)

Term-End Examination
December, 2013
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100
Note : All questions of Section-A are compulsory. In Sections- B and C give answers as per instructions given.
Fill in the blanks : 5
1. (a) ____ discovered circulation of blood in the human body.
(b) Scurvy is a disease caused by deficiency of ____
(c) ____ system in our body protects us from invading germs.
(d) ____ are producers.
(e) Wind is a renewable source of energy.

2. State if the following statements are true (T) or false (F) : 5
(a) The innermost layer of the atmosphere is Troposphere.
(b) Method of science is based on the speculations prevalent in the society.
(c) Man can occupy second or third trophic level in a food-chain.
(d) Oil is a non-renewable source of energy. True
(e) AIDS is caused by bacteria.
3. Give short answers for the following questions  (not more than 50 words) : 10
(a) What is meant by essential amino acids ?
(b) What is an artificial satellite ?
(c) Photochemical smog
(d) Ergonomics
Ans: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
(e) Bio-technology
Ans: Biotechnology has been discovered to meet the growing food demand of the ever increasing population. Biological systems or their products are used in large scale in this method. Biotechnologies have led to the improvement in the quality providing high resistance to diseases and also to the adverse environmental conditions. Scientists use plant cells or seeds or root stocks to grow plants. Tissue culture methods also enable us to get true breeding types. Genetic engineering i.e. altering material of a particular plant by the substitution or addition of new genetic material from some other plants. These were some applications of biotechnology which have helped in plant improvement. Biotechnology has also helped in the improvement of animal breeds. This introduction of bio-technology will prove to be boom to all the futuristic global agricultural strategies.
Note : Answer any eight questions. Limit your answer to 100 words for each question :
4. Briefly explain the impacts of Miller's experiment  on the classical theories of origin of life. 5
5. Explain the water cycle with the help of a diagram only. 5
6. What were the different methods of production used by the primitive society and the Bronze age civilization ?   5
7. What are the conditions that determine whether the fruits of science are used for human good or for distructive purposes ? 5
8. What features in Indian society led to the decline of science in the post-Gupta period ? 5
9. How can saline and alkaline soils be reclaimed ? 5
10. What is carbon dating ? How is the age of fossils determined ? 5
11. List the different ways of technology transfer. Briefly describe any one of them. 5
12. Oceans are known as the largest and thickest  ecosystems. Justify this statement. 5
13. Write short notes (Any two) 5
(a) Big Bang
Ans: According to the big bang theory, the universe began by expanding from an infinitesimal volume with extremely high density and temperature. The universe was initially significantly smaller than even a pore on your skin. With the big bang, the fabric of space itself began expanding like the surface of an inflating balloon – matter simply rode along the stretching space like dust on the balloon's surface. The big bang is not like an explosion of matter in otherwise empty space; rather, space itself began with the big bang and carried matter with it as it expanded. Physicists think that even time began with the big bang. Today, just about every scientist believes in the big bang model. The evidence is overwhelming enough that in 1951, the Catholic Church officially pronounced the big bang model to be in accordance with the Bible.
(b) Hormones
(c) Non-renewable source of energy
Ans: Nonrenewable sources of energy: Nonrenewable sources of energy have continued to produce constant energy throughout the world. This is because of their high availability. Sources of nonrenewable energy can be attributed to natural sources that are not regenerated once the source is depleted. Sources include fossils fuels such as coal and petroleum products e.g. natural gas and diesels.
Advantages of nonrenewable sources of energy
  1. Some such as natural gas burns without any soot hence less environmental pollution.
  2. Most nonrenewable sources of energy are easy to transport from one area to another. For example petroleum oils which can be transported via pipes.
  3. Cost of producing nonrenewable energy is low since they are naturally available. Furthermore they are cheap to transform from one form of energy to another.
  4. Most of this energy sources are abundantly available in different areas. Their availability is not affected by climatic condition.
Disadvantages of nonrenewable sources of energy
  1. Produce harmful green house gases which contribute global warming. Coal once burnt produces carbon dioxide harmful to the environment.
  2. Once they are depleted they cannot be replaced making them expensive to obtain.

Note : Answer any four questions. Limit your answer up to 200 words for each question :
14. Explain the theory of natural selection as proposed by Darwin. 10
Ans: Ans: The Earth is an ancient planet with a history reaching back almost without limit. Limitless time this perhaps more than any other factor is essential for the evolutionary thinking of the past century. In the list of 19th century discoveries we have to add one more that is the sense of time. According to Darwin when he was on his voyage around the world as a naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle, he carried with him a book entitled Principles of Geology. With the help of this book he agreed that geological phenomena were the result of natural forces operating over enormous period of time and operating in manner no different from their operation today.
Too little time has passed since he advocated the theory to allow free play for Darwin’s evolutionary mechanism. Darwin’s mechanism proposed random variations arising over lengthy periods of time and becoming fixed in natural populations by surviving the natural selection.
The Process of Evolution: Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, first published in 1859, has been vastly enriched in detail, but its outlines unchanged. His statement was approximately as follows:
(i)  All species produce offspring in numbers greater than can be supported by the finite resources of their environment.
(ii)  Natural variability arises randomly among members of each species.
(iii) Therefore, a struggle survival starts. Variants best adapted to their environment survive through a process of natural selection, and they form the next generation in their own image.
Plant and animal species compete within and among themselves for food, water, air, and light. According to time, place and phenomena all species slightly changed in its form and characters. They have to adapt themselves according to environment and try to change or modify the environment, where they like for their protection and nourishment.
Origin of Species: Both Darwin and his successors assigned a central role to the concept of the species. The species has been defined as the evolving unit but it has proved to be a surprisingly slippery concept to pin down in practice. In other words, many of the important evolutionary events take place at a level below that of the species, the population.
We face a similar problem in evolution. Like the splitting of a fertilized egg, the evolution of a species has never been observed. Yet the practicing taxonomist is often called on to decide whether two organisms are members of the same species or not. The answer is often an educated guess.

15. What are infectious diseases ? Name any two diseases caused by bacteria and give their symptoms and preventions also. 10
16. Methodology of reward and punishment helps in learning process. Discuss. 10
17. Briefly discuss the advances in the areas of science in India during Iron-Age. 10
18. Discuss the impact of increasing population on environment. 10
19. Describe the role of television in creating awareness In India. 10

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