Biology 314 Solved Assignment 2021-22 | NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22

 NIOS Senior Secondary Solved Assignment 2021 - 22
Biology 314 Solved Assignment 2021-22
Tutor Marked Assignment
Max Marks: 20

Note:

(i) All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.     2

(a) (i) Which Organelle possesses DNA? (See Lesson 4)

(ii) What is the function of WBC in the Body? (See Lesson 4)

(iii) What is function of the Organelle that animal cells have but plants Cells do not?

(iv) Which Orgavelle contains enzyme for cellular Respiration. (See Lesson 4)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

(b) Give reasons to explain (i) why plants do not have any special respiratory Organs like animals. (ii) Why is it not advisable to sleep under a tree at night? (See Lesson 12)

Ans: The biochemical process, which occurs within cells and oxidizes food to obtain energy, is known as cellular respiration. Various enzymes (biocatalysts) catalyze this process. The process by which cells obtain energy from complex food molecules depends upon whether or not oxygen is present in their environment and utilized. Respiration is termed aerobic when oxygen is utilized and anaerobic when oxygen is not utilized.

It is not advisable to sleep under a tree at night because in plants, O2 released during photosynthesis in day time is made available for respiration. However, the rate of photosynthesis is higher than that of respiration. Thus, plants give out excess O2 in the daytime. However, these release only CO2 at night as photosynthesis stops in the absence of sunlight. Animals give out CO2 at all times.

जीव विज्ञान (314) | Biology 314 NIOS Free Solved Assignment 2021 – 22 (Hindi Medium)

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.  2

(a) What does intra cellular digestions means? Justify the meaning by drawing stages of ingestion and digestion in amoeba in three steps and labeling them. (See Lesson 13)

Ans: Intracellular Digestion (Intra = inside)

All the five steps of nutrition occur inside the cell itself, as in Amoeba, Paramecium and other unicellular animals.

Food particles such as minute bacteria are enclosed (caught) by pseudopodia (pseudo = false, podia = feet) to form a food vacuole (Ingestion).

Enzymes from cytoplasm are secreted into the food vacuole to break down complex food. (Digestion) z Digested food is absorbed into the cytoplasm. (Absorption)

 The absorbed food is used up wherever required in the cell. (Assimilation)

 The undigested unabsorbed food is expelled, when the food vacuole comes near the cell surface and bursts open. (Egestion)

Food vacuoles are temporary structures and every time the Amoeba feeds, a new food vacuole is produced. All free-living unicellular animals carry out intracellular digestion, as mentioned above.

(b) A Teacher focused on slides of T.S. of Monocot and Dicot roots under a compound mocroscope and asked you to observe the following features. (i) Radial Vascular Bundles (ii) Presence of endodermis. List out two other characters that would help you to identify. (See Lesson 3)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40 to 60 words.                 2

(a) What do you understand by the term (i) Biopiracy (ii) Biopatent (See Lesson 24)

Ans: (i) Biopiracy: Piracy means theft. Biopiracy means patenting or exploiting a biological resource of another country without being authorised or giving adequate compensation. For example, a rich developed country may patent a bioresource such as medicinal plant or traditional knowledge regarding a bioresource of a developing country.

(ii) Biopatent: A patent is an official document. Possession of this document permits the holder to use or sell his/her invention. The duration of a patent is 20 years and the patent holder has to obtain a license on certain reasonable terms and conditions. The Indian Patent Act (1970) provides patents for invention to be used as food, medicine/ drugs, alloys, semiconductors etc.

(b) Mention two common characterstics found in the following animals a dog, a squirrel, a human being and elephant. Also name the classes to which the four belong. (See Lesson 1)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.       4

(a) Given Below is a table showing names & Disease Symptoms, Causal Organism and preventive measures complete the table by filling up the blanks marks 1 to 8?

S. No.

Name of the Disease

Symptoms

Caused by

Prevention

1.

Tuberculosis

1.

 

2.

2.

Hepatitis

3. Body ache, loss of Appetite Nausea, Eye and skin become yellow in colour.

माइकोबैक्टेरियम ट्यूबरकुलोसिस

 

3.

Filariasis

5.

6.

Use mosquito net at night, check entry of mosquito Prevention of mosquito breading

4.

Dengue

7.

Virus

8.

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

(b) Why Respiration is important for Survival of plants? Give an account of the process of Respiration in plants & mention one difference between respiration in plants & animals. (See Lesson 12)

Ans: Respiration is the stepwise oxidation of complex organic molecules and release of energy as ATP for various cellular metabolic activities. It involves exchange of gases between the organism and the external environment. The green as well as non-green plants obtain oxygen from their environment and return carbon dioxide and water vapour into it. This mere exchange of gases is known as external respiration or breathing in case of animals. It is a physical process. The biochemical process, which occurs within cells and oxidises food to obtain energy, is known as cellular respiration. Various enzymes (biocatalysts) catalyze this process.

The process by which cells obtain energy from complex food molecules depends upon whether or not oxygen is present in their environment and utilised. Respiration is termed aerobic when oxygen is utilized and anaerobic when oxygen is not utilized. In anaerobic respiration, organic molecules are incompletely broken down in the cytosol of the cell and only a small fraction of energy is captured as ATP for use by the cell. In aerobic respiration the reactions of anaerobic respiration are followed by an oxygen requiring process that releases much larger quantity of energy in the form of ATP. This occurs in the mitochondria of the eukaryotes and in the folded plasma membrane (mesosome) of the prokaryotes. Plants do not have any special respiratory Organs like animals.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.         4

(a) Define Homeostasis & explain how it is maintained in the body with the help of an example.

Ans: Homeostasis is a key concept in understanding how our body works. It means keeping things constant and comes from two Greek words, ‘homeo,’ meaning ‘similar,’ and ‘stasis,’ meaning ‘stable.’ A more formal definition of homeostasis is a characteristic of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of properties.

Homeostasis is happening constantly in our bodies. We eat, sweat, drink, dance, eat some more, have salty fries, and yet our body composition remains almost the same. If someone were to draw your blood on ten different days of a month, the level of glucose, sodium, red blood cells and other blood components would be pretty much constant, regardless of your behavior (assuming fasting before drawing blood, of course).

(b) Differentiate between Endo therms & Ecto therms. Which one of these do you think can survive better if there is a sudden change in environmental temperature. (See Lesson 30)

Ans: Answer of any one question is necessary

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:              6

(a)

(i) What is a Corona? How does this Disease Spread?

(ii) What are in 'Symptoms of Someone infected with a Corona virus?

(iii) Can Corona virus be transmitted from Person to person?

(iv) What steps you will take to protect yourself from the Corona Virus?

(v) What kind of Preventive measures that needs to be taken by each one of us to "stop" this Pandemic worldwide.

Ans: (i) Corona is an infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs, but it can spread to other parts of the body. It is caused by a virus and is mostly transmitted through sneezing and coughing. A corona virus spreads through droplets expelled into the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can then enter into your system if you breathe in these droplets on your face, eyes, mouth, or nose.

(ii) Symptoms of someone infected with a Corona: The symptoms of corona depend on the individual infected with it. Common symptoms associated with the flu include fever, headache, muscle aches, dry cough and sore throat, feeling unwell and generally unwell for a day or so.

(iii) Current evidence suggests that the virus spreads mainly between people who are in close contact with each other, typically within 1 meter (short-range). A person can be infected when aerosols or droplets containing the virus are inhaled or come directly into contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth.

(iv) Steps to protect yourself from the corona virus:

a) Maintain at least a 1-metre distance between yourself and others to reduce your risk of infection when they cough, sneeze or speak. Maintain an even greater distance between yourself and others when indoors. The further away, the better.

b) Make wearing a mask a normal part of being around other people.

(iv) Strategies in the control of an outbreak of corona worldwide are screening, containment (or suppression), and mitigation. Screening is done with a device such as a thermometer to detect the elevated body temperature associated with fevers caused by the corona virus. Containment is undertaken in the early stages of the outbreak and aims to trace and isolate those infected as well as introduce other measures to stop the disease from spreading. When it is no longer possible to contain the disease, efforts then move to the mitigation stage: measures are taken to slow the spread and mitigate its effects on the healthcare system and society. A combination of both containment and mitigation measures may be undertaken at the same time. Suppression requires more extreme measures so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the basic reproduction number to less than 1.

(b) Constructing a green house from scrap material.

(i) You are learning a lot about the 'greenhouse effect' and global warming. Why not see for yourself how sun rays heat the greenhouse and keep it warm enough for plants to survive in it.

(ii) You shall need some pieces of glass or transparent plastic sheets, brown cello tape, cardboard, plastic pipes to circulate water inside the chamber, table fan to cool the inside.

(iii) Now see the figure 35.9 of green house on page 48 of module 6A of your senior secondary Biology book 3.

(iv) Assemble all the parts and build the green house. Keep it in the sun on different days. Note atmospheric temperature from newspaper and use a thermometer to check the temperature inside the greenhouse that you have created.

(v) Check the temperature from time to time and on different days on the month and prepare a comparative statement of the change in temperature that you have observed.

Ans: Answer of any one project is necessary

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