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Thursday, December 13, 2018

AHSEC - Class 12 Question Papers: Logic and Philosophy' 2014


2014
(LOGIC & PHILOSOPHY)
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Give very short answer:                                           1x12=12
a)      “In an inductive inference the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises.” It is false?
b)      Find out the correct answer:
In analogy, we pass from particular to general / particular to particular / general to particular / general to general.
c)       In which of the following kinds of induction, there is no inductive leap?
1)      Scientific induction.
2)      Analogy.
3)      Perfect induction.
4)      Unscientific induction.
d)      “The group of induction is itself a result of induction.” – who did say this statement?
e)      Which of the following is not a condition of correct observation?
1)      The observer must be intellectually sound.
2)      The observer must be impartial.
3)      The observer must use artificial instruments.
4)      The observer must have sound mind and body.
f)       State any one condition of a legitimate hypothesis.
g)      Fill up the blank:
Hypothesis is a _____ supposition.
h)      Name the experimental method which is based on the following canon of elimination:
“Whatever antecedent can be left out, without prejudice to the effect, can be no part of the cause.”
i)        Give an example of primary quality.
j)        Who is the author of “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”?
k)      Which of the following is an object of moral judgement?
1)      Random action.
2)      Habitual action.
3)      Instinctive action.
4)      Action of children.
l)        What is the meaning of the word ‘Mores’?
2. Define scientific induction with suitable example.                        1+1=2
3. State two points of difference between scientific induction and unscientific induction.                                              2
4. Define good analogy with suitable example.                                   1+1=2
5. What do you mean by paradox of induction?                                 2
6. How many forms of uniformity of nature are there and what are they?                             2
Or
Distinguish between agent and patient with the help of suitable example.                       2
7. Briefly explain conjunction of causes with the help of suitable example.                           2
Or
Distinguish between plurality of causes and conjunction of causes.                                      2
8. Mention any two qualitative marks of causation.                                          2
9. State any two advantages of observation over experiment.                                    2
10. Give such a concrete example of the method of agreement where we proceed from cause to effect.                             2
11. Why are the inductive methods called ‘method of elimination’?                         2
12. Explain the etymological meaning of any one of the following words:                               2
a)         Religion.
b)         Dharma.
13. Who did define religion as the “recognition of all our duties as divine commandments”? Mention one defect of this definition.                                           1+1=2
Or
Who did define religion as “an emotion resting on a conviction of harmony between ourselves and universe at large”? Mention one defect of this definition.                                                   1+1=2
14. Explain with example the quantitative mark of cause from the standpoint of the principle of conservation of energy. 4
15. State four uses of hypothesis.                            4
Or
Briefly explain the four stages of hypothesis.                                                4
16. What is a crucial instance? Briefly explain a crucial instance obtained by simple observation with the help of a suitable example.                                             2+2=4
17. State two advantages and two disadvantages of the joint method of agreement and difference.                       2+2=4
Or
State two advantages and two disadvantages of the method of concomitant variation.                                          2+2=4
18. What do you mean by realism? State any two differences between naïve realism and scientific realism.         2+2=4
19. Briefly express four points of criticism against naïve realism.                                                 4
Or
Briefly express four points of criticism against scientific realism.                                           4
20. What do you mean by idealism? State two points of difference between realism and idealism.           2+2=4
21. What do you mean by a normative science? Why ethics is called a normative science?                             2+2=4
22. Does the end justify the means? Give a reasoned analysis with the help of a concrete example.         4
Or
What is motive? Distinguish between motive and intention.                                  1+3=4
23. Mention four points of similarity between religion and morality.                        4
24. State three similarities and three dissimilarities between analogy and unscientific induction.                                3+3=6
25. Briefly explain, with example, each of the three kinds of hypothesis according to L. S. Stebbing.         2+2+2=6
26. “The method of agreement is a method of discovery and method of difference is a method of proof.” – Explain the significance of this remark.                                          6
Or
Define the method of difference in your own words and give a concrete example of it. Point out, with the help of an example, how a careless use of this method leads to the fallacy of post hoc ergo propter hoc.                    2+2+2=6
27. What is Berkeley’s subjective idealism? Briefly express four points of criticism against this idealism.                  2+4=6
Or
What is objective idealism? Briefly express four characteristics of this kind of idealism.                           2+4=6

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