Logic & Philosophy
Full marks: 100
Pass marks: 30
Time: 3 hours
1.       Give very short answer:                                                                               1x12=12
a)      Which of the following statements is correct?
1.       Induction is concerned only with formal truth.
2.       Induction is a process of generalisation.
3.       The conclusion of an induction follows necessarily from its premises.
b)      In which of the following kinds of induction, there is inductive leap?

1.       Perfect induction
2.       Analogy
3.       Colligation of facts
4.       Induction by party of reasoning
c)       “All men are religious.” – Is this proposition analytic or synthetic?
d)      “Cause and effect are events in time.” – Is it a quantitative mark of causation?
e)      Which of the following statements is correct?
1.       Experiment is finding a fact and observation is making one.
2.       Observation succeeds experiment.
3.       In an experiment, one cannot pass from the effect to the cause.
f)       Fill in the blanks:
Mill’s paradox of induction is said to commit the fallacy of ………………..
g)      Which of the following is correct?
1.       Direct verification of a hypothesis can be done by observation only.
2.       Direct verification of a hypothesis can be done by observation or experiment.
3.       Direct verification of a hypothesis can be done by experiment only.
h)      Does the method of residues require previous knowledge of the cause or effect for its application?
i)        Name the experimental method which is based on the following canon: “Nothing is the cause of a phenomenon which is known to be the cause of a different phenomenon.”
j)        “The method of agreement is a method of experiment and the method of difference is a method of observation.”-Is it correct?
k)      Who did introduce the “theory of pre-established harmony”?
l)        Who is regarded as the father of modern philosophy?
2.       State any two similarities between scientific induction and unscientific induction.     2
3.       Define analogy with suitable example.                                                            1+1=2
4.       Define efficient cause with an example.                                                        1+1=2
5.       Briefly explain positive condition with the help of a suitable example                 2
Briefly explain negative condition with the help of a suitable example.                  2
6.       What is a crucial instance?                                                                          2
7.       Briefly explain any one condition of a valid hypothesis with the help of a suitable example. 2
8.       What do you mean by analogical hypothesis?                                                                             2
9.       Why are the inductive methods called “Methods of elimination”?                                    2
10.   What do you mean by realism?                                                         2             
11.   State two points of difference between realism and idealism.                                            2
12.   Explain the etymological meaning of the word ‘Dharma’.                                                      2
13.   Mention two points of difference between religion and morality.                                     2
Mention any two characteristics of religion.
14.   State two similarities and two dissimilarities between analogy and scientific induction. 2+2=4
15.   Briefly explain, with example, any two rules on which the value or strength of an analogy depends. 2+2=4
16.   Explain with example the quantitative mark of cause from the standpoint of the law of the conservation of matter and energy.                4
Explain the relation between cause and condition with the help of suitable example.      4
17.   State two advantages of experiment over observation and two advantages of observation over experiment. 2+2=4
18.   Distinguish between hypothesis concerning agent and hypothesis concerning law with the help of suitable example.                                                                4
19.   Briefly explain the four stages of a hypothesis.                                          4
State four uses of hypothesis.                                                                                   4
20.   State two advantages and disadvantages of the method of agreement.                        2+2=4
State two advantages and two disadvantages of the joint method of agreement and difference.              2+2=4
21.   Briefly express four points of criticism against na├»ve realism.                          4
Briefly express four points of criticism against scientific realism.                                                 4
22.   State any four points of difference between primary qualities and secondary qualities.          4
23.   Briefly discuss the nature of ethics.                                                 4
Briefly discuss the scope of ethics.                                                           4
24.   Why is the method of concomitant variation considered as a modified version of the method of agreement and the method of difference? Explain.                 3+3=6
Define the joint method of agreement and difference in your own words and give a concrete example of it. Why do some logicians regard this method as “the method of double agreement” or the double method of agreement’? Explain.                 2+2+2=6
25.   What is Berkeley’s subjective idealism? Briefly express four points of criticsm against this type of idealism. 2+4=6
Critically discuss objective idealism of Hegel.                                       6
26.   Does the end justify the means? Give a reasoned analysis with the help of concrete examples.  6
Briefly explain any three purusarthas.                                    2x3=6
27.   Explain the nature of religion.                                                                   6
Critically explain any one of the following views:                                                               6x1=6
a)      Religion is the source of mortality.
b)      Morality is the source of religion.

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