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Saturday, December 01, 2018

AHSEC QUESTION PAPERS: Logic and Philosophy' 2018

Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: Three hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. Give very short answer:                           1x12=12
a)      What is induction improperly so called?                                    
b)      Is the conclusion of scientific induction certain?
c)       What is the basis of unscientific induction?
d)      “Plans like men have birth, growth, decay and death. Men possess intelligence, therefore plants also possess intelligence”. – What type of analogical argument is this?
e)      “The course of the world is not a uniformity, but uniformities.” – Who said this?
f)       Can there be more than one cause of an effect?                      
g)      What is working hypothesis?
h)      Give one example of a secondary quality.
i)        Name the philosopher who said that esse est percipi?
j)        What is called a voluntary action?
k)      Give one example of a non-moral action.
l)        From which Latin word the term “Religion” has been derived?
2. What is a good analogy?                           2
3. Name the theory according to which Thought and Reality are at bottom identical (Reality is rational). Who advocates the theory?                                                2
4. Define inductive leap.                               2
5. What is the meaning of the law of the conservation of matter and energy?                                     2
What is the intellectual condition of observation?                                             2
6. Why the conclusion of analogical argument is possible?                             2
7. State Mill’s cannon of the Method of Agreement.                                       2
8. Name the experimental method which determines the quantitative relation between cause and effect.          2
9. Can an action of an insane person be called a moral action? Give one reason in support of your views.                               1+1
10. What is the meaning of ‘intention’?                                 2
11. What are the ultimate values of human life? Name the ideal or the value with which ethics is concerned.       1+1
12. Write two points of similarity between Religion and Morality.                              1+1=2
Why the Method of Difference is called a Method of Proof?                                       2
13. What is formal cause according to Aristotle?                                 2
14. Explain the meaning of ‘purusartha’. What are the four values or goals of human life as recognised by Classical Indian Philosophy?                                                       2+2=4
15. State the principle of elimination on which the method of Difference is based.                            4
Explain the fallacies of observation with examples.                                                          4
16. Explain the different stages of hypothesis with examples.                                     4
17. Mention four disadvantages of the Method of Difference.                                   4
Why Mill has described the experimental methods as the ‘methods of elimination’?                       4
18. “The ground of induction is the result of induction” – State two reasons as to why this statement of Mill cannot be accepted.                                                            2+2=4
Define scientific realism. State the exponent of scientific realism.                             3+1=4
19. Which theory holds that the external world can be known directly as it really is? State two reasons as to why this theory cannot be accepted.                                       2+2=4
20. What is solipsism? Name the theory with which solipsism is associated.                          2+2=4
21. State the names of different kinds of induction with chart.                                   2+2=4
22. State four points of difference between scientific induction and unscientific induction.           4
Name the fallacy which sometimes vitiates the Method of Difference when employed as a method of observation. Give an example in this context.
23. Explain very briefly four advantages of experiment over observation.                                          4
24. Define scientific induction with example. State why it is called ‘Scientific’?  Briefly explain three features of scientific induction.                                                            2+1+3=6
What is Analogy? How can the value of analogical argument be determined?                      2+4=6
25. Explain the principle of the Uniformity of Nature. Why it is called the formal ground of induction?                      4+2=6
What is observation? Describe the characteristics of observation.                                             1+5=6
26. What are the conditions of a legitimate hypothesis? Explain any two of them.             2+4=6
Explain the illustrate the following types of hypotheses:                               2+2+2=6
a)      Hypothesis concerning Agent.
b)      Hypothesis Concerning Law and
c)       Hypothesis concerning Collocation.
27. Explain briefly three advantages of the Method of Agreement. Why is this method called the Method of Discovery? 4+2=6
State Mill’s canon of the method of Concomitant Variation. Explain the limitations of this method.

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