Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2019 | AHSEC | Class 12 | Arts Class 12

 

Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2019
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: Three hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. (a) What is the main subject matter of Logic?                                       1

Ans:- Reasoning is the main subject matter of logic.

(b) Is the conclusion of Unscientific Induction certain?                                  1

Ans:- The conclusion of Unscientific Induction is not certain.

(c) Is there ‘inductive leap’ in Perfect Induction?                                           1

Ans:- There is no ‘inductive leap’ in Perfect Induction.

(d) The Paradox of Induction is connected with the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature. Is it true?                  1

Ans:- Yes, it is true.

(e) Which is the first stage of hypothesis suggested by Miss’s definition of hypothesis?                                          1

Ans:- Observation of facts is the first stage of hypothesis suggested by Mill’s definition of hypothesis.

(f) What is the meaning of ‘vera causa’?                                                            1

Ans:- The term ‘vera causa’ literally means a true cause.

(g) What is the exact object of moral judgement?                                                       1

Ans:- Voluntary actions and habitual actions are objects of moral judgement.

(h) Name the theory which states that the external world can be directly known.      1

Ans:- Naive realism states that the external world can be directly known.

(i) Is the conclusion of Method of Agreement certain?                                                              1

Ans:- The conclusion of Method of Agreement is not certain.

(j) Ethics is a positive science. Is it true?                                                           1

Ans:- No, it is not true.

 (k) From which Sanskrit root the word ‘Dharma’ is derived?                                  1

Ans:- ‘Dharma’ is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘dhri’ which means ‘to sustain.’

(l) Which principle of elimination forms the basis of Method of Agreement?                                                1

Ans:- “Whatever antecedent can be left out without prejudice to the effect can he no part of the cause.”

2. State two points of differences between deduction and induction.                           2

Ans: - Logicians classify in terms of deduction and expulsion: -

(i) The premises in deduction are considered correct, while the induction complex derives from experience.

(ii) The objective of deduction is only on formal truth while the purpose of induction is on formal and physical truth. The question in deduction is whether the conclusion is necessarily from the given premises.

3. Why the law of causation is called the formal ground of induction?                          2

Ans: - The law of work-cause guarantees the formal truth of inductive generalizations.

There are some theories, known as the canons of elimination, that serve as the cause of deduction and these canons form the foundation of our inquiry into the cause of an event. To find out whether one event is the actual cause of other events, we need to check whether it corresponds to the elimination compartment. Therefore, the formal truth of inductions depends on Cannes' observance. Since these are truncated due to canon law, we conclude that the termination of the law is a formal basis of induction.

4. Define Scientific Induction.                                   2

Ans: Scientific induction is the establishment of a general substantive proposition, which is based on the observation of particular examples in reliance on the principle of uniformity of nature and law of causation. Example: All the mean are mortal.

5. State any two qualitative marks of causation.                                          2

Ans:- Two qualitative marks of cause:

(i) The cause is relative to a given phenomenon called the effect.

(ii) The cause and effect are always events in time.

Or

Define conjunction of causes with an example.                                            2

Ans:- The acting together of several causes, producing a joint effect is called conjunction of causes.

For example:

Hydrogen and oxygen are mixed together in certain proportion and electric current passed, the joint effect is water. So, several causes acting together, produce a joint effect is called conjunction of causes.

6. How many types of verification are there in a hypothesis and what are these?                2

Ans:- Vertication of a hypothesis may be done in two ways –

(i) By direct observation or experiment and

(ii) Indirect verification.

Direct verification consists in direct observation or direct experiment of fact. Verification is indirect, when we cannot directly observe the supposed cause, but only the consequences deduced from it.

Or

What do you mean by analogical hypothesis?                                                      2

Ans:- Analog hypothesis means a hypothesis that what is true in one set of events may be true in another set of events, both sets have certain formal properties. For example: Maxwell established his electromagnetic theory based on the similarity between gravity and electrostatics.

7. Write two criticisms of Native Realism.                                           2

Ans:- Two criticisms of Native Realism:-

(a) Naive Realism gives over emphasis on perception.

(b) Naive Realism cannot explain error, confusion, hallucinations etc.

8. Give a definition of Idealism in your own words.                                                        2

Ans:- According to idealism, the mind is the primary reality. Our ideas are not representations of external of objects independent of minds.

9. Distinguish between fallacy of non-observation and fallacy of mal-observation.                         2

Ans: There are two types of observation both non-observation and observation, yet there are some differences among them.

There are two main points of difference: -

(A) In non-observation we overlook some things that should be observed. However, if we accidentally observe, we do not consider anything as it appears.

(B) In non-observation, the necessary examples and circumstances of an event are neglected by us and thus we make an error. In non-observation, the thing is completely ignored. In non-observation we have a misinterpretation of the sense. Noting is neglected by us. Only we see the thing wrongly.

10. Write two advantages of observation as the material ground of Induction.             1+1=2

Ans: - There are three advantages of observation on experiment:

(i) First, observation can be universally applied and has a wider scope than experimentation. There are some events that cannot be reproduced artificially.

(ii) Observation enables us to not fall back from cause to effect as well as from cause to effect and from cause to effect.

11. Why the Idealism of Leibnitz is called Pluralistic Idealism?                        2

Ans: - Leibnitz contributes to the development of idealism. Leibnitz states that physical atoms cannot be the ultimate reality. He finds that animate as ideal atoms are real. They are named "Monads" by Leibnitz. These are dynamic and numerous. Hence Leibnitz's theory is known as "plural idealism".

12. Define negative condition with the help of a suitable example.                          1+1=2

Ans: - The condition which goes to stop the effect is called negative state. For example, suppose a labour falls from the roof of a house and dies. Usually 'falling off the roof' is the cause of his death. In this instance their physical strength, helping someone and getting proper treatment is a negative situation.

13. Write the name of one primary and one secondary quality of an object.                   1+1=2

Ans:- Extension is the primary quality and small is the secondary quality.

14. State the qualitative marks of a cause.                                    4

Ans:- Qualitative Marks of Cause:

(a) The cause is relative to a given event called an effect. Cause and effect are relative to each other.This means, effect is impossible without cause and impossible without effect. Both are dependent on each other. Again, the same cause can sometimes be a cause and sometimes as an effect.

(b) Cause and effect are always events of time. An event in time means a change in the current state of things. If there is a change in the current state of things, then the question of work-cause will come in our mind, why is there a change? Similarly, we also inquire into floods, wars, political revolutions and so on.

(c) is inconsistent with the cause effect. Cause and effect are serially related. When two events occur sequentially, the antecedent is called the 'antecedent' and the following is called the 'consequent'.

(d) is indiscriminate for the cause effect. Every effect has a cause. This cause always precedes the effect. This means that the cause is antecedent, but irregular response to the effect may not be the cause.

Or

What do you mean by plurality of causes? Why plurality of causes is not scientifically acceptable?  2+2=4

Ans: - The principle of multiplicity of causes means that the same effect can arise from different causes.

The plurality of causes is a misconception because the doctrine of plurality of causes is inconsistent with the definition of causation as an indivisible anticancer. According to this definition, the same effect can arise from a single cause. For example, the effect of 'death' arises from illness in one case and suicide in another case. This means that death sometimes comes from illness, sometimes from suicide, sometimes from old age.

15. Do you support Native Realism? Give reasons in support of your view.                      1+3=4

Ans: - I support Naive Realism for the following reasons -

(a) Naive realism believes in the reality of material objects as well as the external world, for example - trees, rivers, hills etc.

(b) According to naive realism, the relation between the known and the known is direct.

(c) Through our senses, we experience the physical world as it really is. I am small, our claims of knowledge of the world are justified.

16. What is ‘Crucial Instance’? Explain.                                             4

Ans:- A crucial instance is an instance which can only be explained by one of the contending hypothesis and not by the other. It may be obtained by simple observation or by experiment.

A crucial obtained by observation may be explained by the following example: Suppose there is a theft in the house and we are to decide whether the thief was in league with any member of the house or not. In the course of investigation, we discover a plan of the building lying on the floor by following which the burglar can easily enter into the room. This fact is a cruel instance – which conclusively proves that the information obtained in the plans, could have been supplied only by an intimate and not by outsiders. 

17. State two advantages and two disadvantages of the Method of difference.   2+2=4

Ans: - The difference of method has two advantages: -

(i) The application of the method of difference is very simple. Because, the cause of the two examples needs to be determined so that the effect relationship is sufficient.

(ii) The method of differentiation can prove a work-cause relationship. So, it is considered the best method of experimental investigation.

The method of difference has two disadvantages: -

(i) The method of difference is primarily a method of experimentation, so we can pass through the cause of the effect, but we cannot pass through the effect due to being in this method.

(ii) The method of difference is not completely free from the difficulties arising from the multiplicity of causes.

Or

Write two advantages and two disadvantages of the Method of Agreement.               2+2=4

Ans: - The method of agreement has two advantages and two disadvantages:

(i) The methodology of the agreement is strong. So, it has a wider range of application than the method used. Anything that can be used can also be seen, but whatever can be seen cannot be used. Therefore, the method of agreement has a wide scope.

(ii) The method of agreement enables us to move from effect to effect and cause to effect. Since this method is a method of observation. So, we can take the cause as its effect and find out its cause.

      The two disadvantages of the method of agreement –

                    i.      Practical Imperfection.

                  ii.      Characteristic Imperfection.

(i) Practical imperfection: In this method of agreement it is impossible to assure ourselves that we know all the antecedents.

(ii) Characteristics imperfection: The method of agreement liable to be by the polarity of cause frustrated.

18. Briefly express any four characteristics of Scientific Realism.                                  4

Ans: - Four features of scientific realism: -

(i) Like other forms of realism, scientific realism also holds that the object of knowledge is independent of the mind of the knower.

(ii) We cannot know anything directly. We can know it by its properties. Primary qualities are independent of the mind of the knower. In contrast, secondary qualities are dependent on the mind.

(iii) We cannot see an object. We can only see copies or pictures of objects.

(iv) The process of knowledge is a completely independent process. The nature of an object is not affected by this process. Only copies or images are affected by this process.

19. Name the philosopher who made the statement ‘Esse Est Percipi’. Explain the meaning of the statement. 1+3=4

Ans: - Berkeley gave the statement 'a esta parsi'. The meaning of such a place is that an object is believed to exist. Berkeley believes that as all knowledge comes from experience, we know nothing but the thoughts of our mind. Because what we experience is the idea of ​​the mind. Thus the conception of excess psychosis is a dogmatic and superficial notion. The external world does not exist and as a result, primary and secondary qualities are subjective thoughts of the mind. Berkeley considers the existence of finite mind and God or infinite mind. His theory is known as subjective idealism.

Or

Do you think that Hegel’s idealism tries to reconcile idealism and realism? Explain.

Ans: Objective idealism, as Hegel prepares it, presents the ultimate reality as absolute thought or thought or mind. Hegel's absolute reality is dynamic as well. It manifests its own existence through and through the diversity of this world. Perfection is incomplete without this world. According to Hegel, thought and reality are inferior. This is Hegel's famous controversy in his view. Hegel's idealism accepts the reality of the world. It seeks to assimilate idealism and realism by recognizing the fixed position of the world. It is the real expression of absolutes. Thus we find that idealism is best expressed in Hegel's objective idealism.

20. Explain briefly the Dharma and Artha as Purusarthas.                                             2+2=4

Ans: - According to Kautilya, "Man's livelihood means". Meaning refers to wealth and power. Man is unable to conduct his life without the physical means of living, because the physical aspect is an important as any other aspect of life. Man is not only a soul, he is also a body. Our body demands certain things.

Religion has a very important place and place in Hindu social organization. In our system, everything happens in the name of religion. Religion is the code of right action. Religion refers to the laws or principles on which society is based. After this religious practice has developed, a person can try to secure things by his own will.

Or

State four important aspects with which Ethics deals.                                              4

Ans: - Four important aspects with which morality deals are as follows:

(i) Ethics is primarily concerned with the moral virtues of right and wrong human actions.

(ii) The consciousness of right and wrong is with the consciousness of 'oughtness', 'duty' or moral obligation, therefore, this sense of duty or moral obligation has to be kept in mind.

(iii) Ethics deals with moral judgment which leads to the question which is the real subject of moral judgment.

(iv) Personality, reason, morality of freedom, morality are positions, therefore, there are concerns with the discussion of these postulates.

21. Write a note on Plato’s Idealism.                                      4

Ans: - Plato's philosophy is known as 'theory of ideas' or 'theory of forms'. According to Plato and above the world of impulses, there is a world of thoughts or forms. Plato believed in the parochial reality of the parochial world, including ideas, forms or concepts, Plato's philosophical theory known as analog conceptual realism '. He said that the world exists on two levels, sensible and rational. According to Plato, the conscious world is mortal, cosmic etc. Beyond this, the world is immortal and cosmic. Descartes considered the problems to be the relation between mind and body, nature's form and content. He observed that there was no such idea about which we can be absolutely certain. In Descartes doubt is the starting point of his philosophy and not its conclusion. He actually starts with doubt so as to get beyond the truth. Scepticism is considered and therefore the existence of thought cannot be doubted. Descartes came to the conclusion that doubt means thought.

22. Write briefly the nature of religion.                                                                4

Ans: - Religion is generally defined as the creator, perpetual and moral governor of the world as a living being, with a sense of dedication, dedication and worship, reverence, faith and love and voluntary acts. . Thus, religion touches the entire human being. Total personality with all aspects of life. Three elements of human life, namely, thinking, feeling and desire character are included in religion.

Religion means man's belief in God or gods and trying to commune with him. There are two aspects of religion. internal and external. The inner aspect refers to the intellectual and emotional elements present in the consciousness i.e. thoughts, thoughts and feelings that man has in relation to God. The external aspect refers to practical activities i.e. rites, ceremonies through which religious sentiment is expressed.

Religion has both personal and social aspects. In its personal aspect, it is more or less a matter of personal experience and a conviction of personal liberation. By the social aspect we mean a spirit, devotion to the ideal of social unity and all that is necessary for its promotion and maintenance.

23. Briefly explain the four stages of hypothesis.                                             4

Ans: - The hypothesis consists of the following four steps:

(i) Observation of facts is the first stage of hypothesis. The observation presents before us to explain some facts. Through observation we are exposed to the facts. As a result of this contact, questions arise in the mind about the incident which call for clarification.

(ii) Formation of hypothesis is the second stage of hypothesis. Since we have to explain the reason behind an event and the actual explanation is not known to us, we outline a provisional hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. Since the data in out-of-settlement are insufficient, we outline a provisional suppression, otherwise it would be difficult to make an actual statement.

(iii) Application of deductive method is the third stage of the hypothesis. At this stage, by temporal suppression, some conclusions are drawn.

(iv) Verification is the fourth stage of the hypothesis. At this stage, the conclusions drawn from the hypothesis are verified. Such validation is done under the idea that if the conclusion that we ended up with the facts from the hypothesis, the hypothesis is true. If not, the hypothesis is in favour of another provisional suppression.

24. State any three similarities and any three dissimilarities between Unscientific Induction and Analogy. 3+3=6

Ans: The points of similarity between unscientific induction and analogy can be stated as follows-

(i) Both analogy and unscientific induction are two forms of induction. There is an 'inductive leap' in both analogy and unscientific induction.

(ii) Both analogy and unscientific induction are based on observation.

(iii) Both do not attempt to find and prove a work-cause relationship.

There are three disparities between unscientific induction and analogy:

(i) In analogy we pass from one particular to another but in unscientific induction we pass through the particular.

(ii) The basis of analogy is incomplete equality while the basis of unscientific induction is uncontrolled experience.

(iii) An analogy with the meaning of a word. But unscientific induction relates to the meaning of a word.

Or

Define Unscientific Induction and state its main characteristics.

Ans:- The characteristics of Unscientific Induction are –

a)      Unscientific Induction establishes general real propositions. Induction establishes proposition. A propositions states a relation between two terms. We seek to prove a connection between two terms and establish a proposition. But the proposition which we derive in the conclusion is general propositions. As we know, general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. But the general proposition, which induction established are not verbal. They are real propositions. A verbal proposition merely stages the connotation or a part of the connotation of a term. But a real proposition does not merely analyzes the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.

b)      The conclusion of Unscientific Induction is based on mere uniform or uncontradicted experience. Unscientific Induction draws its conclusion on the ground of mere enumeration or counting instances. So far as our experience goes, we have never come across any contradictory cases. On the strength of this uniform or uncontradicted experience, we arrive at the general proposition.

c)       In unscientific induction, there is no knowledge of any causal connection. Hence, the conclusions are merely probable. Probability is a matter of degrees, ranging from zero to what very nearly approaches scientific certainty. But however high the degree of probability, unscientific induction can never reach the certainty of scientific induction.

25. Define the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference with concrete example. State two advantages and two disadvantages of this method                                   2+2+2=6

Ans: - The joint method and difference of mill agreement is as follows - “If two or more instances in which an incident occurs. A situation in general, while in two or more instances, is nothing in general, whereas two or more instances have an essential part of an effect or cause or event.

This method has two advantages -

(i) First of all, since this method is mainly a method of observation, we can pass through cause and effect.

(ii) The scope of application of this method is very wide, as it is a method of observation.

The two disadvantages of this method are as follows:

(i) This method is not completely free from difficulties arising from insufficient analysis and multiplicity of reasons.

(ii) The joint method of agreement and difference cannot properly separate work-cause from coexistence.

Or

Explain the Method of Residues with example.                                          6

Ans: - According to Mill "Sub duct is a part of any event, as known by previous induction so that some antis accidents have effect and the residency of the event is the effect of the remaining antis accidents. For example - we weight a weight Do. Pay attention to the car and weight. We already know the weight of the car alone. By subtracting the weight of the car from the total weight of the loaded car, we conclude that the difference is the weight of the load. This method is based on Is. On the principle that no one thing can cause a different thing. When we are dealing with a complex phenomenon and we already know the cause of some of them, we conclude that the residual or residual The cause of the phenomenon is to be found among the remaining antis accidents.

The method of residence is a special modification of the method of difference. Because, the principle underlying these two methods is the same, if there are two examples that differ only in the circumstances that exist in one instance and are absent in the other, then the two groups of antic agents alone are different. The reason for other circumstances in which the results of the two groups alone differ. The difference between the two methods is that, in the method of difference, the instance in which the conditions do not arise is supplied by the experiment, while in the residuals of the method, that instance is supplied by deduction from the previous induction.

26. Explain Aristotle’s view on causation.                                6

Ans: - According to Aristotle, there are four types of reasons. They are material cause, formal cause, efficient cause and ultimate cause.

Physical reason: The substance or substance from which a thing is made is called a physical cause. For example, threads are the physical cause of the fabric.

Efficient cause: The labor, skill, or energy spent in making something is called efficient cause. For example, the strength or skill applied to a weaver to a material in making clothes is an efficient cause of effect. Sometimes the agent is called efficient cause.

Final cause: The purpose with which the process of making something is directed is called the final cause. The final cause basically exists as an idea in physical reason. For example, the purpose for which a cloth is made.

Or

Explain the Law of Causation as one of the formal grounds of Induction.             6

Ans: - The law of uniformity of nature is an assumption in each case of catalysis. We move from known to unknown, from particular to general, until we allow that nature will behave the same way under similar circumstances. Therefore, Mill believes that the uniformity of nature is the guarantee, the last major basis of all induction. Each induction can be thrown into an impotence, with a dominant basis, which is a particular form of uniformity of nature, so it is said that the principle of uniformity of nature is the formal basis of induction.

The reason for the Ation law guarantees the formal truth of inductive generalizations.

There are some theories, known as canons of elimination, that are cut off from the cause of law, and these principles form the foundation of our investigation into the cause of an event. To find out whether one event is the actual cause of other events, we need to test whether this corresponds to the elimination of the valley. Therefore, the formal truth of induction depends on ear-rearing. Since these cannons are presented as a rule of cohesion, we conclude that the law of cohesion is a formal basis of induction.

27. “Religion and Morality are mutually dependable” – Discuss it.                                          6

Ans: - Belief in God and immortality of soul are common for religion and morality. The existence of God and the immortality of soul are the core articles of faith in religion. Similarly, the immortality of the soul and the existence of God are the basic postures of morality. The moral ideal is always realized in God, which signifies moral perfection. Again, moral life demands that the soul should not be destroyed along with the body.

Some points of difference between religion and morality are:

(i) Religion has its center in God whereas morality has its center in man.

(ii) It is conceivable that there can be a purely humanistic morality in which there is no reference to the supernatural, but if all references to the supernatural are excluded, religion will lose its essential nature.

(iii) Religion is broader than morality. Morality deals only with goodness, but religion is more widespread because it includes other values ​​such as beautiful, truthful and good.

(iv) Ethics means progress towards infinity. Whereas Dharma means progress within the infinite.

(v) Religion is more an emotional experience than morality. This is the difference that was expressed by religion in Matthew Arnold's definition of 'morality touched by emotion.'

(vi) Ethics depends entirely on the consciousness of freedom while religion moves in the opposite field of necessity.

Or

What do you mean by Religion? Which is the most acceptable definition of Religion? Explain two characteristics of Religion.                              2+2+2=6

Ans: - Etymologically, dharma means a bond that unites human life as well as social life. The most satisfying definition of religion is that "religion is in the belief of man or the creature is powerful in itself and inaccessible to its senses, but is not indifferent to its feelings and actions, with feelings and practices such belief flows. . "

The philosopher's name associated with this definition is Flint.

The characteristics of religion are as follows:

(i) Motivations and motivations in religion are the basic human desires and desires - survival, development, welfare, self-reliance.

(ii) Religion involves belief in a supreme power or powers, upon which man depends for his own good.

 

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