Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2018 | AHSEC | Class 12 | Arts Class 12

 

Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2018
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: Three hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. Give very short answer:                           1x12=12

a)    What is induction improperly so called?

Ans:- Processes stimulating induction.                                                                                         

b)   Is the conclusion of scientific induction certain?

Ans:- Yes

c)    What is the basis of unscientific induction?

Ans:- In impersonal induction, a general substantive proposition is established only on the basis of a similar or uncontrolled experience without the search for a causal connection.

d)   “Plans like men have birth, growth, decay and death. Men possess intelligence, therefore plants also possess intelligence”. – What type of analogical argument is this?

Ans:- Bad analogical argument.

e)   “The course of the world is not a uniformity, but uniformities.” – Who said this?

Ans:- Bain.

f)Can there be more than one cause of an effect?

Ans:- No.                   

g)    What is working hypothesis?

Ans. Sometimes it may be that there is some phenomenon to be explained but it is of such an unfamiliar kind that we are not able to make any supposition at all as to its cause or law of operation.

h)   Give one example of a secondary quality.

Ans:- Taste.

i) Name the philosopher who said that esse est percipi?

Ans:- Berkeley.

j) What is called a voluntary action?

Ans. Voluntary actions are actions performed by an agent deliberately and intentionally in order to realize some foreseen ends.

k)    Give one example of a non-moral action.

Ans:- Hurricanes.

l) From which Latin word the term “Religion” has been derived?

Ans:- Religio.

2. What is a good analogy?                          2

Ans:- The strength of Analogy depends on the number and the importance of the points of the difference and the number of the unknown points. So, a God analogy means an argument in which a conclusion is drawn from the presence of essential resemblance between two things.

3. Name the theory according to which Thought and Reality are at bottom identical (Reality is rational). Who advocates the theory?                                        2

Ans:- In the preceding chapters of this study we are particularly concerned with Hegel's theory of the nature of thought. We have learned that, according to his theory, thought is co-extensive with experience and consequently with reality itself: there is no opposition to it.

4. Define inductive leap.                              2

Ans. According to Mill, induction is a process “from the known to the unknown”. Bain calls this the “inductive leap”. So, inductive leap consists in passing from the observed cases to the unobserved cases. But this passage from the observed to the unobserved involves some risk. For Mill and Bain, “Inductive leap” is the very essence of Induction. If there is no “Inductive leap”, the process cannot be called Induction all.

5. What is the meaning of the law of the conservation of matter and energy?                                   2

Ans:- In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy is that the total energy of an isolated system is constant and is said to be conserved over time.

Or

What is the intellectual condition of observation?                                          2

Ans:- The intellectual state of observation is a method of observation where we observe intellectually.

6. Why the conclusion of analogical argument is possible?                          2

Ans:- Analogical arguments are those inductions where a conclusion is derived from a comparison of similarities between two or more cases. As to induction, Analogical arguments can only give possible conclusions, not certain ones.

7. State Mill’s cannon of the Method of Agreement.                                      2

Ans:- Mill's canon for the method of agreement is that "if two or more instances of the event under investigation occur in only one circumstance, then the circumstance in which all instances alone agree, the cause (or effect) of the given event is."

8. Name the experimental method which determines the quantitative relation between cause and effect.       2

Ans:- Method of Concomitant variation.

9. Can an action of an insane person be called a moral action? Give one reason in support of your views.                            1+1

Ans:- No, because they don’t have the sense of moral quality to justify right and wrong.

10. What is the meaning of ‘intention’?                                                2

Ans: The idea or idea of the object which stimulates the state of desire for its attainment is called motive.

Motive is the efficient cause of action, whereas intention is the ultimate cause of action. JS mentioned above Mill is not right Both motive and intention are the ultimate cause of action.

11. What are the ultimate values of human life? Name the ideal or the value with which ethics is concerned. 1+1

Ans:- Truth, beauty and moral ideal, ethics is concerned with moral ideals.

12. Write two points of similarity between Religion and Morality.                          1+1=2

Ans: There are two points of similarity between religion and morality:

(i) Both religion and morality believe in God.

(ii) Both believe in the immortality of the soul.

Or

Why the Method of Difference is called a Method of Proof?                                      2

Ans: According to Mill, the difference of method is the only method of direct use by which the rules of work can be proved. So, this is the method of proof. It is said that the difference of method cannot be eliminated by the possibility of plurality of reasons.

13. What is formal cause according to Aristotle?                                               2

Ans: - The new form or shape imposed on the product produced is called formal cause. For example, the weaver takes a bundle of thread and wears it as a special cloth.

14. Explain the meaning of ‘purusartha’. What are the four values or goals of human life as recognised by Classical Indian Philosophy?                                       2+2=4

Ans:- Purushartha means the four highest ends recognized by ancient Hindus. Everyone should pursue them for their own good.

There are four efforts: -

(i) Religion or quality

(ii) Meaning or Wealthy

(iii) work or happiness and

(iv) Moksha or liberation.

15. State the principle of elimination on which the method of Difference is based.                        4

Ans:- "When an antecedent cannot be omitted without the result being lost, there must be a reason or reason for such a response."

Or

Explain the fallacies of observation with examples.                                                       4

Ans: - There is considerable difficulty in observation and is often responsible for error. This type of error is called degradation of observations.

Second part: Non-observation is the culmination of seeing something that should be seen. For example - in some instances, where the dreams dreamed during the small hours of the morning were fulfilled and concluded that they were always true. There are two types of non-observation (i) non-observation of examples. (ii) Not observing necessary circumstances.

Fecal observation is the fallacy arising from misinterpretation of emotion. For example - in the dark night we mistake the rope for the snake.

16. Explain the different stages of hypothesis with examples.                                   4

Ans: - The hypothesis consists of the following four steps:

(i) Observation of facts is the first stage of hypothesis. The observation presents before us to explain some facts. Through observation we are exposed to the facts. As a result of this contact, questions arise in the mind about the incident which call for clarification.

(ii) Formation of hypothesis is the second stage of hypothesis. Since we have to explain the reason behind an event and the actual explanation is not known to us, we outline a provisional hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. Since the data in out-of-settlement are insufficient, we outline a provisional suppression, otherwise it would be difficult to make an actual statement.

(iii) Application of deductive method is the third stage of the hypothesis. At this stage, by temporal suppression, some conclusions are drawn.

(iv) Verification is the fourth stage of the hypothesis. At this stage, the conclusions drawn from the hypothesis are verified. Such validation is done under the idea that if the conclusion that we ended up with the facts from the hypothesis, the hypothesis is true. If not, the hypothesis is in favour of another provisional suppression.

17. Mention four disadvantages of the Method of Difference.                                  4

Ans:- The following are the disadvantages are as follows –

1)      The method of difference does not enable us to deal completely with the plurality of causes the method of difference can only prove that a particular antecedent is the cause in a given case. But cannot prove that it is the only cause.

2)      The method of difference does not enable us distinguish a cause from a condition. The introduction of a new element is not necessarily the sole cause of any change which may happen.

3)      The method of difference cannot be applied to reason directly from logic. In the experiment, we can move from cause to effect, but not back from effect. The effects are not under our control. Since the method of the method is essentially a method of experimentation, the method also cannot be applied to logic with direct effect.

Or

Why Mill has described the experimental methods as the ‘methods of elimination’?                   4

Ans. Elimination means exclusion of accidental circumstances. The inductive method is purely negative. They are concerned merely with exclusion of irrelevant and accidental circumstances. To prove a accidental circumstances may be brought out and determined. So the inductive method called the method of elimination.

18. “The ground of induction is the result of induction” – State two reasons as to why this statement of Mill cannot be accepted.                                                            2+2=4

Ans: - The law of symmetry f is a formal basis of nature induction. Mill calls this the "fundamental principle" and the implicit assumption in each case of induction. This means, the truth of the principle of homogeneity cannot be proved, but it must be predetermined before any induction can be applied, Mill also believes that the principle of uniformity of nature is the result of unscientificity. Induction sand when the general principle of uniformity of nature is the result of unscientific induction and when the general principle of uniformity of nature is established it forms the foundation of all induction. Therefore we see that the ground of induction is an induction. This is known as the paradox of induction.

Or

Define scientific realism. State the exponent of scientific realism.                         3+1=4

Ans: - British Philosopher John Locke. Scientific realism believes in the reality of external objects. John Locke is an exponent of scientific realism. He distinguishes between primary qualities and secondary qualities. Locke believes that the primary qualities, that is, expansion, impermeability, speed, shape, etc. are objective and real. But secondary qualities, that is, color, taste, smell, etc. are the subjective states or thoughts of our mind. Because, secondary attributes are different for different individuals in different circumstances and at different times for the same person. One is sweet, the other is bitter.

19. Which theory holds that the external world can be known directly as it really is? State two reasons as to why this theory cannot be accepted.                                        2+2=4

Ans:- Naive Realism.

Naive Realism believes in the reality of the external objects and ideas are exact copies of external real things and their qualities.

One important drawback of this theory:

(a) Naive Realism gives over emphasis on perception.

(b) Naive Realism cannot explain error, confusion, hallucinations etc.

20. What is solipsism? Name the theory with which solipsism is associated.                      2+2=4

Ans:- Solipsism means ‘My world of ideas constitutes the only reality, beyond that there is nothing.

21. State the names of different kinds of induction with chart.                                  2+2=4

Ans:-

22. State four points of difference between scientific induction and unscientific induction.       4

Ans: - Four points of difference between scientific induction and unscientific induction are:-

(a) Scientific observation is based on both simple observation and experiment. But unscientific induction is based on simple observation only.

(b) Scientific induction is based on the principle of uniformity of nature and rule of law whereas unscientific induction is based only on homogeneous or uncontrolled experience.

(c) The process of scientific induction is complex but the process of unscientific induction is simple.

(d) The conclusion of scientific induction is definite but the conclusion of unscientific induction is probable.

Or

Name the fallacy which sometimes vitiates the Method of Difference when employed as a method of observation. Give an example in this context.

Ans: - Post Hawk Ergo Proper Hawk. The reason is an antiquity. But none and every anticidant is the cause. The reason for an event to mistake any and every ante is committed to the fall of the post hoc ergo Proper Hawk. For example, in 1910, the Halley comet was spotted and the merciful Edward VII died. In this form, superstitious people argue that the sight of the comet is the cause of the king's death.

23. Explain very briefly four advantages of experiment over observation.                                           4

Ans: There are three benefits of experimentation over observation:

(i) Experiments enable us to multiply our examples indefinitely. If an experiment does not enable us to satisfactorily observe the phenomenon under investigation, we may try again and again. But in observation we wait for opportunities.

(ii) Experiments often enable us to isolate the phenomena we have studied. In the experiment, it is possible to remove the probe from the effect of all agents, except for the effect we wish to observe.

(iii) Experiments enable us to change the surrounding conditions indefinitely. In the experiment we examine different sets of circumstances under which the event is investigated. But in observation, we have to depend on nature's byproduct to supply suitable types of examples.

(iv) The third experiment enables us to change the surrounding conditions with certainty. Finally, the experiment enables us to examine things with coolness and gamut.

24. Define scientific induction with example. State why it is called ‘Scientific’?  Briefly explain three features of scientific induction.                           2+1+3=6

Ans: - Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of a particular example, in dependence on the principle of uniformity of nature and work-cause.

For example:

Ram is mortal.

Rahim is mortal.

Richard is mortal.

All men are mortal.

The features of scientific induction are as follows:

(i) Scientific induction establishes a general basic proposition: a general proposition is one in which the predicate is confirmed or an indefinite number of individuals are rejected. Again, a real proposition does not merely analyze the meaning of a word, but adds something new to our knowledge.

(ii) Scientific induction is based on observation of facts: The general propositions established by induction are based on observation of particular details. For example - the general proposition "all people are mortals" is based on our observation of special cases of deaths that we have come across.

(iii) Scientific induction is based on two prescriptions, the law of work and the principle of uniformity of nature. The rule of law says that every event must have a cause. The principle of uniformity of nature states that under similar circumstances, the same cause produces the same effect. These two core principles are called the formal basis of scientific induction.

Or

What is Analogy? How can the value of analogical argument be determined?                                   2+4=6

Ans: - The analogy is a type of induction argument based on incomplete similarity between two things. When we find that Earth and Mars are similar to each other in similar environment, land, water, etc., we believe that Mars resembles Earth due to being inhabited by living beings.

The value of analogy can be determined by the following conditions:

(i) Limit of known parity.

(ii) Limit of known difference.

(iii) The extent of the unexplained region of unknown properties.

25. Explain the principle of the Uniformity of Nature. Why it is called the formal ground of induction? 4+2=6

Ans: - We know that nature is one. This means, nature behaves in the same way under similar circumstances. If similar circumstances occur, the same events will follow. At first sight, it may seem that nature is not always the same. There are various types of phenomena in nature, which are subject to fixed laws. If the conditions are repeated, it will happen again. So, there are uniformities or laws in nature. Nature is not a tufted junk of parts, but parts are completely related. All its parts are part of a system.

The law of uniformity of nature is an assumption in each case of induction. We go from known to unknown, special to general, until we allow that nature will behave in the same way under similar circumstances. Therefore, Mill believes that the uniformity of nature is the guarantee, the last major basis of all induction. Each induction can be thrown into impotence, with a dominant basis, which is a particular form of uniformity of nature, so it is said that the principle of uniformity of nature is the formal basis of induction.

Or

What is observation? Describe the characteristics of observation.                                           1+5=6

Ans: - Experimentation is the artificial reproduction of events under pre-arranged and self-selected conditions and thus when they are reproduced, they are observed. In the experiment, events are artificially reproduced in the laboratory by the investigator. The investigator can vary the circumstances as he likes.

The benefits of experimentation over observation are:

(i) First, the experiment enables us to multiply our examples indefinitely.

(ii) Secondly, experiments often enable us to isolate the phenomenon we are studying.

(iii) Third, the experiment certainly enables us to separate the surrounding conditions.

(iv) Finally, the experiment enables us to examine things with coolness and gamut.

26. What are the conditions of a legitimate hypothesis? Explain any two of them.          2+4=6

Ans: - A hypothesis is an attempt to explain a provisional suppression made to explain a fact or event scientifically.

The conditions of the valid hypothesis are as follows:

(i) The hypothesis should not be self-contradictory or absurd, but should be oppressive and finite.

(ii) The hypothesis must be free from conflict with the establishment of truth. This means that the opposition should not violate a law for which we have positive evidence.

(iii) The hypothesis must be based on facts and its object must have a real cause or a true cause.

Or

Explain the illustrate the following types of hypotheses:                             2+2+2=6

a)      Hypothesis concerning Agent.

b)      Hypothesis Concerning Law and

c)       Hypothesis concerning Collocation.

Ans: - A hypothesis is an attempt to explain the provisional suppression made to explain a fact or event scientifically. Whenever we see something striking or unusual, we begin to interpret it.

For example: If a person has cholera, we can assume that he has taken impure water. Therefore, we outline the hypothesis to explain the events.

The hypotheses are as follows:

(i) Hypothesis related to law: Sometimes the agent is known, but the law or scheme according to which he acts is not known. We frame a hypothesis of how the agent performs. The method of gravity was established by such a hypothesis.

(ii) Hypothesis about agent: The law can be known, but it may be that the particular agent acting according to this known law is unknown. In such a case we outline the hypothesis about the agent. For example - planetary nature was discovered by this type of hypothesis.

(iii) Hypothesis about the aorta: Collocation means a system of circumstances, which makes it possible for the effects to occur. If the agents are known, but the aorta is not known, then we belong to the hypothesis frame. For example - Earth is considered the center of the universe and the Sun and other planets revolve around the Earth. But Copernicus created a different hypothesis as to the collision of heavenly bodies and found that the Sun was the center of the system and all other bodies revolved around the Sun.

27. Explain briefly three advantages of the Method of Agreement. Why is this method called the Method of Discovery? 4+2=6

Ans: - The method of agreement has three advantages:

(i) The methodology of the agreement is strong. So, it has a wider range of application than the method used. Anything that can be used can also be seen, but whatever can be seen cannot be used. Therefore, the method of agreement has a wide scope.

(ii) The method of agreement enables us to move from effect to effect and cause to effect. Since this method is a method of observation. So, we can take the cause as its effect and find out its cause.

(iii) In any scientific investigation, the method of agreement helps in implementing hypotheses related to work-cause.

The method of agreement is a method of discovery. The compromise method is one of the primary motivational methods. Mill himself admits that it is an easy prey to a plurality of causes. Again, this is not merely a weakness of agreement. It also faces other difficulties. Therefore it can give a definite result.

But despite all its weaknesses, the method of compromise has its own value. It stimulates scientific investigation. If two things regularly exist and one of them regularly follows the other, then we can inquire if there is a causal relationship between them. Such investigations may lead to the discovery of some laws of nature. Therefore the method of agreement is a method of discovery.

Or

State Mill’s canon of the method of Concomitant Variation. Explain

Ans: - Mill said this.

The method applied to arrive at the above-mentioned conclusion is the method of concomitant variance. Concentrated variance can be direct variance or inverse variance. The above example is derived from the inverse variance, in which the antecedent and consequent differ in opposite directions, ie, an increase in one is followed by a decrease in the other and vice versa.

According to Mill, whatever event changes in any way whenever another event changes in a particular way, either that event has a cause or effect, or is associated with it through some fact of action. is. "The method is based on the principle that cause and effect are quantitatively equal in energy, an increase or decrease in one must occur after a proportional change in the other. Thus if two events always change simultaneously, they are reasonably connected.

Limitations of the method of concomitant diversity

(i) The method of concomitant fractions has no application beyond the facts that are actually observed.

(ii) The method of qualitative variations has no application in cases of qualitative variation.

Advantages of the method of concomitant variation: There are some reasons that cannot be completely eliminated. Vis, heat, gravity, atmospheric pressure etc. but not the complete elimination of these permanent causes.

 

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