# Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2015 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Question Papers

## Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2015AHSEC Class 12 Solved Question PapersFull Marks: 100Pass Marks: 30Time: Three hoursThe figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. Give very short answer:                           1x12=12

a)      “The premises of an inductive inference offer certainty for the truth of the conclusion.” – Is it true?

Ans. No

b)      Which of the following statement is true?

i.            The law of causation is a material ground of induction.

ii.            Observation and the law of causation are the formal grounds induction.

iii.            Observation and experiment are the formal grounds of induction.

iv.            None of the above statements is true.

Ans. None of the above statements is true.

c)       “Observation is finding a fact and experiment is making one.” – Who did say this statement?

Ans. Bain.

d)      Which one of the following statement is incorrect?

i.            Observation is a perception with a definite purpose in view.

ii.            Observation is a perception of natural events.

iii.            Observation is not a perception of events under natural conditions.

iv.            In observation, the natural events are not fully under the control of the observer.

Ans. Observation is not a perception of events under natural conditions.

e)      Which is the last stage of hypothesis suggested by Mill’s definition hypothesis?

Ans. Verification

f)       What is the meaning of the condition of ‘testability’ of a valid hypothesis?

Ans. It means that the hypothesis must be such that it can be proved either to be true or to be false.

g)      “When heat is applied to ice, then ice melts. When heat is not applied to ice, then ice does not melt. Therefore, heat is the cause of the melting of ice.”

Name the experimental method employed in the above argument.

Ans. The method of concomitant variation

h)      “The possibility of the doctrine of the plurality of causes cannot frustrate the method of agreement.” – Is it correct?

Ans. No it is not correct.

i)        Who among the following philosophers is not an idealist?

i.            Berkeley.

ii.            G.E. Moore.

Ans. G.E. Moore

j)        Name the philosopher associated with the statement – “Thought and Reality are at bottom identical”.

Ans. Hegel

k)      What is the meaning of the Latin word ‘Religare’?

Ans. The word Religare means ‘bond’.

l)        Mention any one similarity between Religion and Morality.

Ans. Religion: Religion is the knowledge possessed by the finite mind of its nature as absolute mind.

Morality: Moral obligation and responsibility lead to the idea of god.

2. State two points of difference between deduction and induction.                     1x2=2

Ans. The difference between deduction and induction are as follows:

Logicians classify inference into deduction and induction:

1)      In Deduction the premises are assumed to be true, while in Induction the premises are derived from experience.

2)      Deduction aims merely at formal truth while Induction aims at formal and material truth. In Deduction the question is whether the conclusion follows necessarily from the gives premises. But in Induction there is further question whether the conclusion is true as a matter of fact.

3)      In Deduction the conclusion cannot be more general than the premises. But in deduction the conclusion is always more general than the premises.

4)      Deduction is descending process.

3. Define bad analogy with suitable example.                   1+1=2

Ans. A bad analogy is one, in which the conclusion is drawn from superficial points of resemblance. For example plants, like men, have birth, growth and decay and death. Men possess intelligence therefore planets also possess intelligence. This is a bad analogy because there is no essential connection between the points of resemblance and the inferred property.

4. State any two characteristics of analogy.                         2

Ans. Characteristics of Analogy are as follows –

a)      Analogy is not based on causal connections. So its conclusion is probable and not certain.

b)      Analogy is based on resemblance of certain properties between two things. This resemblance or similarity is imperfect.

5. Define material cause with an example.                          1+1=2

Ans. The material or substance from which a thing is made is called the material cause. For a table, that case may be of wood;

6. Briefly explain any one criticism against Mill’s paradox of induction.     2

Ans. Mill’s contradictory statement regarding the principle of the uniformity of nature is known as the paradox inductions. It simple means that the ground of Induction is itself the result of induction. Mills Calls it a fundamental principle or general axiom of Induction and an assumption implied in every case of Induction. It is the ground of all kinds of Induction.

Or

Why Mill’s paradox of induction is said to commit the fallacy of petition principia or fallacy or arguing in a circle?

Ans. Mill’s contradictory statement regarding the principle of the uniformity of nature is known as the paradox inductions. It simple means that the ground of Induction is itself the result of induction. Mills Calls it a fundamental principle or general axiom of Induction and an assumption implied in every case of Induction. It is the ground of all kinds of Induction.

7. What do you mean by a working hypothesis?                               2

Ans. Sometimes it may be that there is some phenomenon to be explained but it is of such an unfamiliar kind that we are not able to make any supposition at all as to its cause or low of operation. But some provisional supposition is necessary in order that we may study its nature and attributes in such case we take the help of working hypothesis.

8. Briefly explain any one condition of a valid hypothesis with the help of a suitable example.    2

Ans. The conditions of valid hypothesis are as follows:

1)      The hypothesis must not be self contradictory or absurd but should be conceivable and finite.

2)      The hypothesis must be free from conflict with establish truths that means the supposition should not violate a law of which we have positive evidence.

9. Why do some logicians regard the method of agreement as a method of single agreement?   2

Ans. The two advantages of the method of agreement are:

a)      The method of agreement enables us to proceed from the cause to the effect and from the effect to the cause. As This method is a method of observation. So we can move from cause to its effect and from effect to its cause to find out the causal connection.

b)      In any scientific enquiry the method of agreement helps to frame hypothesis relating to causal connection.

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10. Give a concrete example of joint method of agreement and difference.                       2

Ans:- A concrete example of the joint method of agreement and difference are as follows:

Malaria is present in the places where there are anopheles mosquitoes. Again in the places where there are no anopheles mosquitoes, malaria is absent. Therefore on the basis of this observation we can conclude that anopheles mosquito is the cause of Malaria.

In the joint method of agreement and difference we find agreement or presence of the positive instances and agreement of absence of the negative instances. By this double method of agreement of absence and presence cause effect relation is established.

11. What are primary qualities? Give example.                     1+1=2

Ans:- The qualities which are independent of the knowing mind or the qualities which are objective properties of an object are called the primary qualities. These primary qualities are the fundamental qualities of an object in the sense that they are the objective qualities and the necessary properties of an object. These qualities remain unchanged through all the changes of time and place.

12. Briefly express any two characteristics of objective idealism.   2

Ans. Characteristics of objective idealism are as follows:

1)      Modern Realists admit the Hegelian view that nature is rational or intelligible. But they do not admit its dependence on any mind, finite or infinite. They deny its spiritual character or being an expression of the infinite mind.

2)      Hegel belittles the importance and significant of the human spirits. He concedes relative freedom to human minds and yet belittles their creatively and freedom. He seems to deny their power of creating new values and new order.

Or

Briefly express any two points of criticism against objective idealism.    2

Ans. (1) Modern Realists admit the Hegelian view that nature is rational or intelligible. But they do not admit its dependence on any mind, finite or infinite. They deny its spiritual character or being an expression of the infinite mind.

(2) Hegel belittles the importance and significance of the human spirits. He concedes relative freedom to human minds and yet belittles their creativity and freedom. He seems to deny their power of creating new values and new order.

13. State any two essential characteristics of religion.                   2

Ans. The characteristics of religion are as follows:

a)      The motives and the driving forces in religion are the basic human wants and desires survival growth well being self realization.

b)      Religion involves belief is a supreme power or powers on whom human beings depend for their well being.

14. What is induction? State two differences between deduction and induction        2+2=4

Ans. Induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instances on the uniformity of nature and law of causation.

The main differences are as follows –

1)      In Deduction the premises are assumed to be true, while in Induction the premises are derived from experience.

2)      In Deduction the conclusion cannot be more general than the premises. But in Induction, the conclusion is always more general than the premises.

15. “All inferences are analogical at bottom”. – Explain the significance of this remark.  4

Ans. In our everyday life we inter on the basis of observation of similarity in certain properties among different things. It is inferred that those things we resemble in some other property. Scientific Induction is the establishment of a general real proposition based on the observation of particular instances in reliance on the principle of the uniformity of nature and the low of causation. But scientific induction and analogy are forms of Induction proper. In both there is Inductive leap from the known to the unknown. Again both Scientific Induction and analogy are based on observation in analogy. We first observe that one thing resemble another is some properties. So we can infer further resemblance in some other properties between them. Scientific Induction is also based on the observation of particular instances for the establishment of a general real proposition. It unscientific induction a general real proposition is established on the basis of mere uniform or uncontradicted experience without any attempt at discovering a causal connection. Both analogy and unscientific Induction are two forms of Induction proper. Both of them are based on observation in both analogy and unscientific induction there is no attempt to establish a causal connection. Both of them are great source of hypothesis. But the conclusion of both analogy and unscientific induction are probable. Thus we can say that all inferences are analogical.

16. What is a condition? Briefly explain positive and negative condition with the help of suitable example.  1+3=4

Ans. According to carventh Read Condition means any necessary factor of a cause.

Conditions are of two:

a)      Positive condition and

b)      Negative condition.

Positive condition must be present and negative condition must be absent. The condition which helps to produce the effect is called positive condition.

The condition which tends to prevent the effect is called negative condition. A labour falls from the roof of a home and dies. In this example, highness of the roof, hardness of the soil, get hurt in chest are positive condition. Because in presence of these condition the event occurs. On the other hand, his physical strength getting anybody’s help and proper treatment are negative condition.

17. What do you mean by fallacy of mal-observation? Distinguish between individual mal-observation and universal mal-observation with the help of suitable example.  1+3=4

Ans. No observation is the fallacy of overlooking something which ought to have been observed. For example: in certain instances where dreams dreamt during the small hours of the morning were fulfilled and conclude that they always come true. Non observation is of two kinds. These are –

1)      Non observation of instances

2)      Non observation of essential circumstances.

Mal observation is the fallacy arising out of the wrong interpretation of since perception. For example, in the dark night we mistake a rope for a snake.

The Mal observation in which the mistake is committed individually is called individual fallacy of mal observation. On the other hand, the mal observation in which the mistake is committed universally is called universal fallacy of mal observation.

Or

Distinguish between fallacy of non-observation of essential instances and fallacy of non-observation of essential circumstances with the help of suitable example.       4

18. Distinguish between explanatory hypothesis and descriptive hypothesis.                   4

Ans. Every supposition of an antecedent circumstance as the real cause of the phenomenon in question is called an explanatory hypothesis. The simplest kind of hypothesis is the explanatory hypothesis. This kind of hypothesis is framed for explaining an event. Newton’s hypothesis relating to the gravitational attraction is a hypothesis of this kind. Descriptive hypothesis describe the manner in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs. This kind of hypothesis is called Descriptive hypothesis. This kind of hypothesis is generally formed to offer a description of a complex event with a view to give an accurate description which helps in the investigation of the phenomenon under investigation Ptolemy’s geocentric hypothesis offered a geometrical representation of the heavenly bodies. It is a despritive hypothesis.

19. What is crucial instance? Briefly explain a crucial instance obtained by experiment with the help of a suitable example.                  2+2=4

Ans. A crucial instance is an instance which can only be explained by one of the contending hypothesis and not by the other. It may be obtained by simple observation or by experiment.

A crucial obtained by observation may be explained by the following example. Suppose there is a theft is the house and we are to decide whether the thief was in league with any member of the house or not. In the course of investigation we discover a plan of the building lying on the floor by following which the burglar can easily enter into the room. This fact is a crucial instance which conclusively proves that the information obtained in the plan could have been supplied only by an inmate and note by outsider.

20. State two advantages and two disadvantages of the method of difference.  2+2=4

Ans. As the scope of observation is wider than that of experiment. So the method of agreement can be applied to all the various fields of investigation. Again as by observation we can find the cause of any effect as well as can find the effect of any given cause. So the method of agreement is applicable to the discovery and proof of the causal connection is both directions from the cause to the effect as well as from the effect to the cause. Hence the method of agreement is superior to other methods.

The following are the disadvantages are as follows –

1)      The method of difference does not enable us to deal completely with the plurality of causes the method of difference can only prove that a particular antecedent is the cause in a given case. But cannot prove that it is the only cause.

2)      The method of difference does not enable us distinguish a cause from a condition. The introduction of a new element is not necessarily the sole cause of any change which may happen.

Or

State two advantages and two disadvantages of the method of residues.                      2+2=4

Ans:- The advantages of the Method of Residues are:

(i) The Method of Residues helps extensively in any discovery.

(ii) This method determined the causal relation between a complex cause and complex effect.

The disadvantages of the Method of Residues are:

(i) The method of residuals cannot be applied without previous knowledge of the causal relationship.

(ii) If complex effects cannot be reduced or analyzed, this method cannot be applied.

21. What do you mean by naÃ¯ve realism? State any two differences between naÃ¯ve realism and scientific realism. 2+2=4

Ans. NaÃ¯ve realism believes in the reality of the external objects and ideas are exact copies of external real things and their qualities.

Differences are as follows:

NaÃ¯ve realism:

a)      There is an external world outside our mind.

b)      NaÃ¯ve realism supports the correspondence theory of truth.

Scientific realism:

a)      We cannot see an object. We can see only the copies or images of the object.

b)      Like other forms of realism, scientific realism also asserts that the object of knowledge is independent of the knower’s mind.

Or

What do you mean by naÃ¯ve realism? Briefly express any two points of criticism against this type of realism. 2+2=4

Ans: - Naive realism believes in reality. External objects and ideas are exact copies of external real things and their properties.

Two points of criticism against this type of realism: -

(i) Naive emphasizes the notion of realism.

(ii) Naive Realism cannot explain error, confusion, hallucinations etc.

22. Briefly explain any four characteristics of naÃ¯ve realism.                       4

Ans. The characteristics of naÃ¯ve realism are –

1)      There is an external world outside our mind.

2)      NaÃ¯ve realism supports the correspondence theory of truth.

3)      The object of our knowledge produces sensation in us. The sensation of an object is similar to everyone.

4)      The relation between the knower and the known is a direct relation there is nothing that intervenes our knowing of any object.

Or

Briefly express any four characteristics of scientific realism.                                4

Ans. The characteristics of scientific realism are –

a)      We cannot see an object. We can see only the copies or images of the object.

b)      Like other forms of realism, scientific realism also asserts that the object of knowledge is independent of the knower’s mind.

c)       We cannot know an object directly. We can know it by its qualities primary qualities are independent of the knower’s mind on the contrary secondary qualities are mind dependent.

d)      Like other forms of realism, scientific realism also states that the object of knowledge is independent of the mind of the knower.

23. What is habitual action? Why is this type of action regarded as object of moral judgement?                               2+2=4

Ans. Action means both voluntary and habitual action. A voluntary action is an action that is performed and choice of ends and means. Habits are the results of repeated voluntary action.

Yes, habitual action is the object of moral judgement. Habits are the result of repeated voluntary actions. Again voluntary action is performed by a rational agent with desire provision and choice of ends and means. So these actions are objects of moral judgement.

24. Define the method of agreement in your own words and give a concrete example of this method where we proceed from effect to cause. Why is this method called pre-eminently a method of observation?          2+2+2=6

Ans. According to the method of agreement. If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstances in common the circumstances in which alone all the instances agree is the cause (or the effect) of the given phenomenon, “from this principle it follows that if some circumstance be always present, when the given phenomenon is present, there is causal Malarial fever. We collect several instances where it occurs and find on observation that every one of these cases is preceded by the bite of anopheles mosquitoes, while other circumstances are different. Hence the common antecedent viz. the bite of anopheles is the cause of malarial fever.

This method has been called by Mill, “the method of Agreement” because this method proceeds by comparing different instances to ascertain in which they agree. This method of agreement is pre eminently a method of observation as distinguished from experiment. This description does not mean that the method of agreement is limited to simple observation and cannot be applied to cases we where experiments are possible experiments does not exclude observation is certainly possible. So, that method of agreement does not require instances of any special and definite character. Any instances in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs may be examined for the purpose of this method. So observation can supply its instances.

Or

Define the method of residues in your own words. Why do some logicians regard this method as a method of deduction? Explain.       2+4=6

Ans: - The sub-duct from any event, eg, the effect of some specific fraction is known by the distorted induction and is the effect of the residual residue of the event. This is called the method of residuals.

Of all those who observe, it is to show that some results are followed by some antecedents. Then starts the process of calculation or deduction. We compute the effects of known causes and subtract this calculated effect from the total effect. In this way the residual result is found to be the effect of the residual antagonist. Direct experience plays a relatively negligible part in the calculation or deduction of large-scale figures. So, the residuals of the method have essentially been considered a method of deduction.

25. What is Berkeley’s subjective idealism? On what grounds Berkeley has said that primary and secondary qualities are inseparable.                                      2+4=6

Ans. Subjective idealism denies the existence of the external objects and reduces them to the subjective ideas of the finite minds. External objects are sensations produced in the finite minds by God.

1)      Berkeley’s idealism may be regarded as subjective and psychological. Because the external world is appropriate by individual consciousness. So the material world will lose its existences and unity when it is unperceived by other mind.

2)      To solve these problems Berkeley shifted his ground of idealism from the finite mind to infinite; In order to maintained continuity and unity of existences of things. Berkeley introduces god as the immediate cause of all our perception all as permanent ideas in God’s mind.

3)      So, the later phase of Berkeley’s idealism seems to have objective character. But like most of the critics. Berkeley’s idealism cannot be regarded as objective idealism.

Or

Critically discuss objective idealism of Hegel.                                      6

Ans. Hegel’s objective idealism faces criticism of modern realists. According to objective idealism, the world is outward expression of the absolute mind.

a)      Modern realist thinkers like G.E. Moore, Bertrand Russell Soren Kieke gaard criticized Hegel objective idealism, Kieke gaard argued against dictum of Hegel that what is rational is actual and what is actual is rational that is cannot be so for any individual.

b)      Modern realists do not admit that nature is dependent on any mind, finite or infinite. They deny its spiritual character or being an expression of the infinite mind.

c)       Hegel belittles the importance and significances of the human spirits. He concedes relative freedom to human minds and yet belittles their creativity and freedom. He seems to deny their power of creating new value and new order.

26. Briefly discuss any three of the different elements involved in the mental stage of voluntary actions.  2x3=6

Ans. The different sub stages of mental stage of voluntary action are –

1)      The spring of action: Every voluntary action springs out of some want or need. This feeling of want may be actual or ideal. The feeling of want is always painful. But it is usually mingled with pleasure which arises from the anticipation of satisfaction of the want in future.

2)      Deliberation: When there is a conflict of motives the self arrests action and deliberates upon the merits and demerits of the different course of action suggested by different motives the self weights them in the balance and considers the pros and cons. This is called deliberation.

3)      Decision or choice: After the deliberation the self chooses a particular motive and identifies itself with it. It chooses a particular course of action and rejects the rest. This act of selection of one motive to exclusion of other is called choice or decision.

Or

What do you mean by non-moral actions? Briefly explain any five non-moral actions.   1+5=6

Ans:- Non-moral action means action which is devoid of moral quality. The Phenomena of nature i.e. hurricanes, floods, famines etc. and the action of animal are two example of non-moral action.

27. Critically explain any one of the following views:                                     6x1=6

1)      Religion is the source of morality.

2)      Morality is the source of religion.

3)      Religion and morality are independent of each other.

Ans. (1) Religion is the source of morality: According to Marlineau morality leads to religio. Our consciousness or moral faculty gives us an institution of right and wrong and of the obligatoriness of right conduct. It is obligatory upon up to do what is right. Obligation means obligation to some higher authority. I am not the source of this moral obligation. If I were so, I could annual my sense of obligation at my pleasure. The society or state also cannot be source of my moral obligation because it cannot take cognizance of all my action, motives and intentions. So God who is omniscient and omniscient must be the ultimate source of moral authority of when we are responsible for our action. So Martineau holds that moral obligation and responsibility necessarily lead to the idea of god.

(2) Morality is the source of Religion: Belief in God and immortality of the soul are common to religion and morality. Existence of god and immortality of the soul are the fundamental articles of faith in religion. Similarly immortality of the soul and existence of God are fundamental postulated of morality the moral idea is eternally realized in god who is an embodiment of moral perfection. Again moral life demands that the soul does not parish along with the body.

(3) Religion and morality are independent of each other: This view state that religion and morality are independent of each other. Neither religion rises out of morality nor morality rises out of religion. But each spring from a distinct source is the human mind. Religion arises out of a feeling of dependence on power or powers higher than man for self preservation and well being morality again arises from the idea and aspiration toward perfection of self morality thus springs up in the human mind at a higher stage of its development. Though religion and morality arise independently of each other yet it is found that intellectual and moral development lead to a final synthesis between the two.

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