Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2014 | AHSEC | Class 12 | Arts Class 12


Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2014
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: Three hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. Give very short answer:                        1x12=12

a)      “In an inductive inference the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises.” Is it false?

Ans. It is true.

b)      Find out the correct answer:

        In analogy, we pass from particular to general/particular to particular/general to particular/general to general.

Ans. In analogy we pass from particular to particular.

c)       In which of the following kinds of induction, there is no inductive leap?

1)      Scientific induction.

2)      Analogy.

3)      Perfect induction.

4)      Unscientific induction.

Ans. Perfect induction

d)      “The ground of induction is itself a result of induction.” – Who did say this statement?

Ans. Mill said this!

e)      Which of the following is not a condition of correct observation?

1)      The observer must be intellectually sound.

2)      The observer must be impartial.

3)      The observer must use artificial instruments.

4)      The observer must have sound mind and body.

Ans. The observation must use of artificial instruments.

f)       State any one condition of a legitimate hypothesis.

Ans. Hypothesis must be verifiable.

g)      Fill in the blank: Hypothesis is a Provisional supposition.

h)      Name the experimental method which is based on the following canon of elimination:

        “Whatever antecedent can be left out, without prejudice to the effect, can be not part of the cause.”

Ans. Method of agreement

i)        Give an example of primary quality.

Ans. Size is primary quality.

j)        Who is the author of “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”?

Ans:- John Locke.

k)      Which of the following is an object of moral judgement?

1)      Random action.

2)      Habitual action.

3)      Instinctive action.

4)      Actions of children.

Ans. Habitual action

l)        What is the meaning of the word ‘Mores’?

Ans. Habit is the meaning of Mores.

2. Define scientific induction with suitable example.                            1+1=2

Ans. Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instances in reliance on the principle of the uniformity of nature and the law of causation. Example: all mean are mortal.

3. State two points of difference between scientific induction and unscientific induction.  2

Ans. Scientific Induction: Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instances, in reliance on the principle of the uniformity of nature and the law of causation.

        Unscientific Induction: Unscientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition on the ground of more uniformed uncontradicted experience without any attempt at explaining of causal connection. 

4. Define good analogy with suitable example.                            1+1=2

Ans. A good analogy is one which a conclusion is draw from the presence of essential resemblance between two things. For example: Mars resemblance the earth in beings planet.

5. What do you mean by paradox of induction?                               2

Ans. Mills’s contradictory statement regarding the principle of the uniformity of Nature is known as the paradox of Induction. It simple means that the ground of induction is itself the result of induction. Mills calls it a fundamental principal or general axiom of induction and an assumption implied in every case of induction. It is the ground of all kind of induction.

6. How many forms of uniformity of nature are there and what are they?                            2

Ans. There are two forms of uniformity of nature. These are –

1)      Uniformity of succession.

2)      Uniformity of coexistence.

Or

    Distinguish between agent and patient with the help of suitable example.                    2

Ans. The thing acting is said to be the agent. Agents are those which act for example if a glowing match stick is thrown to a heap of straw there is fire. Here glowing match stick in agent.

7. Briefly explain conjunction of cause with the help of suitable example.                                          2

Ans. The acting together of several causes producing a joint effect is called conjunction of success! For example: Hydrogen and Oxygen are mixed to together in certain proportion and electric current passed, the joint effect is water!

Or

    Distinguish between plurality of causes and conjunction of causes.                                    2

Ans. The doctrine of plurality of causes means that the some effect may be produced by different causes in different cases. For example: light may be produced by the sun, the moon, the starts, by electricity etc on the other hand, the acting together of several causes, producing a join effect, is called conjunction of causes. For example – Hydrogen the oxygen is mixed together in certain proportion and an electric current passed. The joint effect is water!

8. Mention any two qualitative marks of causation.                                        2

Ans. According to the law of conservation of Matter and Energy, the causes are equal to the effect. Because, the total quantity of matter and energy in the word is constant. It can neither increase nor decease though it may change in from. So far as matter is concerned, the effect is identical with the cause, only the form may be different. When a certain quantity of Oxygen is combined with a certain quantity of Hydrogen to from water, the from is changed but the weight of water is equal to the weight of substance combined again, so far as energy is concerned the quantity of energy is equal to the causes. For example: when a moving body its motion it appears that the energy is lost but actually, it is converted into another energy viz. Heat so, it follows that quantitatively causes is equal to the effect!

9. State any two advantages of observation over experiment.                                   2

Ans. (1) Firstly, observation can be applied universally and has a wider scope then experiment. There are certain phenomenon’s which cannot be artificially reproduced. They are beyond our control, e.g. eclipse or earthquake. Again, there are certain phenomenon’s which are two dangerous to experiment with. In such cases, we have to fall back on observation and wait until the phenomenon makes its appearance in the ordinary course of nature. Thus the range of observation is wider than that of experiment!

          (2) Observation precedes experiment is possible only when some knowledge already has been acquired by observation. But by previous observation unless we know that we are to expect, adequate proportion are not possible.   

10. Give such a concrete example of the method of agreement where we proceed from cause to effect.         2

11. Why are the inductive methods called ‘methods of elimination’?                    2

Ans. Elimination means the exclusion of accidental circumstance. The function of inductive methods is purely negative. They are concerned merely with the exclusion of accidental and irrelevant circumstance. To prove a causal connection, accidental circumstances are eliminated in order. That accidental circumstance may be brought out and determined so; the inductive methods are called ‘Methods of Elimination’.

12. Explain the etymological meaning of any one of the following words:   2

a)      Religion.

b)      Dharma.

Ans. Religion: Etymologically, religion means a bond which unites the human life as well as the social life.

         Dharma: the word ‘Dharma’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘dhri’ when means ‘to sustain’.

13. Who did define religion as the ‘recognition of all our duties as divine commandments”? Mention one defect of this definition.                                          1+1=2

Ans. Kant defined religion as the ‘recognition of all our duties as division’s commandments The Kant’s definitions of religion. There is no room left for mystic experience. According to Kant, Religion is not the source of morality but morality is the source of religion. But religion and morality are closely connected. Both morality and religion are indispensable for a complete and integral development of the individual. 

Or

    Who did define religion as “an emotion resting on a conviction of harmony between ourselves and the universe at large”? Mention one defect of the definition.                                  1+1=2

Ans: Metaggart gave the above definition. This definition is not satisfactory because its overlooks the practiced sides of religion.

14. Explain with example of quantitative mark of cause from the standpoint of the principle of conservation of energy.                                                 4

Ans. According to law of conservation of Matter and Energy, the cause is equal to the effect. Because, the total quantity of matter and energy in the world is constant, it can neither increase nor decrease though it may change in from. So far as matter is concerned, the effect identical with the causes, only the form may be difference when a certain quantity of oxygen is combined with a certain quantity of hydrogen to from water. The from is changed but the weight of water is equal to the weight the substance combine. Again so, far as energy is concerned. The quantity of energy to the causes. For example: When a moving body loses it motion it appears that the energy is lost but actually, it is converted into energy viz. Heat so, if follows that quantitatively causes is equal to the effect.

15. State four uses of hypothesis.                                                            4

Ans. (1) Hypothesis from the starting points of scientific investigation and makes observation and experiment possible. Scientific induction aims at the establishment of a causal connection. In order that we must start with a provisional supposition as to what the causal is or how it operates, and this is what is meant by hypothesis.

          (2) Hypothesis is an aid to explanation. A phenomenon is explained when its causes or the law of its operation is proved. Hypothesis assumes three from viz. hypothesis concerning an agent or a collection or the law of the operation of known agent. In each case the phenomenon is explained when the hypothesis is proved.

          (3) Hypothesis makes deduction possible. There are cases where the results of observation are uncertain, and experiment cannot be employed, in such cases hypothesis is the only way to prove a causal consequences from it and compare them with actual facts of experience.

          (4) In our everyday life, we are constantly making hypothesis to explain fact of our experience e.g. on returning home in the evening we find that the glass panel of the been broken we make a hypothesis. That a strong or a cricket ball had been thrown against it from outside, this is a case of ‘Popular Hypothesis’.

Or

    Briefly explain the four stages of a hypothesis.                             4

Ans. The four stages of a hypothesis are –

a)      Observation of facts.

b)      Formation of hypothesis.

c)       Application of the dedicative method, and

d)      Verification.

16. What is a crucial instance? Briefly explain a crucial instance obtained by simple observation with the help of a suitable example.                             2+2=4

Ans. A crucial instance is an instance which can only be explained by one of the contending hypothesis and not by the other. It may be obtained by simple observation or by experiment.

A crucial obtained by observation may be explained by the following example: Suppose there is a theft in the house and we are to decide whether the thief was in league with any member of the house or not. In the course of investigation, we discover a plan of the building lying on the floor by following which the burglar can easily enter into the room. This fact is a cruel instance – which conclusively proves that the information obtained in the plans, could have been supplied only by an intimate and not by outsiders.  

17. State two advantages and two disadvantages of the joint method of agreement and difference.      2+2=4

Ans. The advantage of the joint method of agreement and difference are as follows –

a)      In this method we can go from cause to effect as well as from effect to cause.

b)      This method is free from plurality of cause.

The disadvantages are as follows –

a)      It is a method of observation. So it cannot distinguish between cause and condition.

b)      In this method, it impossible to assure ourselves that we know all the antecedents.

Or

    State two advantages and two disadvantages of the method of concomitant variation   2+2=4

18. What do you mean by realism? State any two differences between naïve realism and scientific realism.     2+2

Ans. Realism is a theory, which believes in the reality of the external objects independent of knowing mind.

Naive Realism: Naive realism believes in the reality with external objects and ideas are exact copies of external real things and their qualities.

Scientific Realism: Scientific realism believes in the reality of the external objects. But for them primary qualities, viz. size, shape, extension etc.

19. Briefly express four points of criticism against naïve realism.                                 4

Ans. The four points of criticism against naïve realism are –

1)      Naïve Realism gives over emphasis on perception.

2)      Naïve Realism cannot explain error, illusions, hallucinations etc.

3)      Naïve Realism refuses to accept the subjective aspect of knowledge.

4)      But in knowing process both subjective and objective aspects have their own oral.

Or

    Briefly express four points of criticism against scientific realism.                         4

20. What do you mean by idealism? State two points of difference between realism and idealism         2+2=4

Ans. According to idealism, the mind is the primary reality. Our ideas are not representations of external object and independent of minds.

Difference between realism and idealism:

a)      Realism: Realism is a theory, which believes in the reality of the external objects, independent of knowing mind.

b)      Idealism: According to idealism, the mind is the primary reality. Our ideas are not representation of external object independent of minds.

21. What do you mean by a normative science? Why ethics is called a normative science?                          2+2=4

Ans. A normative science sets before itself a norm or ideal and deals with things as they should be. Ethics tries to ascertain the more ideals but does not lay down rules or means for the attainment of. It does not teach us know to live a moral life. As Mackenzie states, ethics gives us knowledge of the guiding principles of life, but does not tell us how to apply them. Thus ethics is a normative science and not a practical science.

22. Does the end justify the means? Give a reasoned analysis with the help of a concrete example.  4

Ans. Sometimes the end chooses in good, but the means employed for the attainment of the end are bad. Should such an action as realize a good end thorough bad means be regular led as right? It Crispin used to steel leather from the rick to make share for the poor. Can his action be justified? Evidently we cannot regard his conduct as right, because though his motive was good, he employed immoral means. A merchant adopts unfair means to gain wealth. His motive is gain which is not wrong. But he adopts wrong means. This makes his action wrong. Thus we came to the conclusion that intention is the object of moral judgement. It includes the motive or the idea of the end as well as the idea of the means an action is good if the end as well as the means adopted is good. So, the end never justifies the means. 

Or

    What is motive? Distinguish between motive and intention.                            1+3=4

Ans. The idea or thought of the object which excites the state of desire for its attainment is called the motive. Motive is the efficient causes of action, whereas intention is the final cause of action. The above mention distinction given by J.S. Mill not correct motive and intention both are final cause of action. But intention is wider than motive. Motive is a part of intention. The motive of a voluntary action is the chosen and realized by it. It induces the self to act but in order to realize as end, we have to employ means. The end may be pleasant. But it may be realized through an unpleasant means or the end may be realized through means which are partly pleasant and partly unpleasant. Motive is the ideas of the chosen end. An intention is the idea of the end and the idea of the means pleasant or unpleasant, chosen by the self. Thus intention is wider than motive.

23. Mention four points of similarity between religion and morality.                     4

Ans. There are certain similarity between religion and morality. These are –

a)      Both religion and morality believe in God.

b)      Both of them believe in immorality of the soul.

c)       Both springs from a distinct source in the human mind.

d)      Both religion and morality.

24. State three similarities and three difference between analogy and unscientific induction. 3+3=6

Ans. Similarity:

1)      Both are kinds of induction.

2)      In both cases induction leap is present.

3)      The conclusion is probable in both cases.

The differences between analogy and unscientific induction are given below –

a)      Analogy is a mind of induction argument based on imperfect resemblance between two things.

b)      Analogy does not conclusively prove a causal connection but it is most fruitful source of hypothesis.

c)       We find that the Earth and the Planet Mars resemble each other in possessing similar kind of atmosphere, land water etc.

25. Briefly explain with example each of the three kinds of hypothesis according to L. S. Stebbing.  2+2+2=6

Ans. (1) Explanatory hypothesis: This is the simplest kind of hypothesis. Explanatory is framed for explaining an event. These hypotheses are intoned to accuse for the occurrence of an event by. The interpretation of facts, these facts can be observed by the observer under suitable conditions. The supposed facts are of the same type as the facts that constitute the data of the problem. Newton’s hypothesis to the gravitational attraction is an example of explanatory hypothesis.

          (2) Descriptive hypothesis: This kind of hypothesis is generally from to offer a description of a complex event. With a view to give an accurate description which helps in the investigation of the phenomenon under investigation. The main function of descriptive hypothesis is to symbolize the systematic relation among fact. S Geocentric hypothesis offered a geometrical representation of the heavenly duties. It is a descriptive hypothesis.

          (3) Analogical Hypothesis: This kind of hypothesis is a development of descriptive hypothesis. An analogical hypothesis means a hypothesis that what is true of one set of phenomenon may be true of another set as both the sets possess in common certain formal properties. Maxwell established his famous electro-magnetic theory on the basis of resemblance between gravitation and electrostatics. This is example of analogical hypothesis.

26. “The method of agreement is a method of discovery and the method of difference is a method of proof.” – Explain the significance of this remark.                                                                 6

Ans. Method of Difference: The method of difference is not totally free from the difficulties arising out of the plurality of causes. Here we can prove that a particular event is the causes of a particular effect. But from it we cannot prove that the said cause is the only causes of effect. In other cases some other event may be proved as the cause. Therefore, we can say that the method of difference can prove a cause but not the only causes.

          Method of agreement: According to the method of agreement if two events are in variable found to be present or they are invariably succeeding one another than they are causally connected. But from this we cannot say that the invariable antecedent is the cause of the invariable consequent. For example, ‘day’ is the invariable antecedent of the ‘night’. But from this we cannot say that ‘day’ is the cause of ‘night’. In fact ‘day’ and ‘night’ are the co-effects of the same cause i.e. the rotation of the earth on its own axis so, the method of agreement cannot distinguish between the cause and co-effect.

Or

    Define the method of difference in your own words and give a concrete example of it. Point out, with the help of an example, how a careless use of this method leads to the fallacy of post hoe ergo propter hoc.   2+2+2=6

Ans. Scientific induction aims at the discovery and proof of causal connection among phenomenon with a view to establishing a general preposition. Logicians have formulated certain “methods” or devices by which causal connections among phenomenon are investigated i.e. by means of which causes and effects of given phenomenon are discovered and proved. These methods of causal investigation have been Experimental Methods. Mill formulated five experimental methods. They are – The method of agreement, the method of difference, the joint method of agreement and difference, the method of concomitant variation, and the method of Residues’.

    A careless use of the method of difference sometimes leads to the fallacy of part hoc ergo propter hoc. The appearance of a comet in the sky may be followed by the death of King, but we certainly cannot argue that the appearance of the comet is the cause of the death. In practical life we depend on simple observation for the supply of instances but in such cases the method of difference does not yield conclusive results. In order to agree with the special requirements of this method the instance must be supplied by experiment.

27. What is Berkeley’s subjective idealism? Briefly express four points of criticism against this idealism.   2+4=6

Ans: - Berkeley advocates subjective idealism. For him, both primary and secondary types are nothing but a set of characteristics and all properties of matter, nothing but subjective states or thoughts of our mind. Therefore Berkeley argues that the existence of an object is assumed. If all knowledge is experienced, then we know nothing more than thoughts of our mind, because what we experience is a thought of the mind. Thus the conception of excess psychosis is a dogmatic and superficial notion.

Criticism against this idealism:-

(i) Berkeley states that their existence exists. But the neo-realist argues, the object exists, it is independent of the mind and its knowledge. Its existence is not affected by the knowledge of the mind.

(ii) Berkeley Agnes, we experience a sensation or object at the same time, we cannot separate the two from each other in real perception, so they must be identical with each other.

(iii) Berkeley believes that sensible thieves are thoughts or sensations as much as we consider our thoughts or sensations. Berkeley never proves this notion.

Or

    What is objective idealism? Briefly express four characteristics of this kind of idealism.    2+4=6

Ans: - Hegel admits the fact of the globe. He considers it AN outward expression of the whole mind. it's freelance of the finite mind of God. it's the article of external and universal consciousness. The finite mind is that the finite vow of God through the finite limbs of physical beings. that the world is real yet as ideal.

Four characteristics of such idealism: -

(i) The final idea, according to Hegel, is the ultimate reality. The Absolute manifests its ideas through finite ideas.

(ii) The relation between absolute thought and the world of things and mind is that one person cannot exist without the other.

(iii) Hegel's entire reality is dynamic because it is alive. It manifests its existence through the diversity of this world.

(iv) Hegel's idealism accepts the reality of the world. It seeks to assimilate idealism and realism by recognizing the fixed position of the world. This is the real expression of the absolute.

 

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