Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2017 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Question Papers

Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2017
AHSEC Class 12 Solved Question Papers
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: Three hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. Give very short answer:                                           1x12=12

a)      What is the essence of induction proper?

Ans:- Inductive leap or danger is the very essence of induction.

b)      Is perfect induction an induction proper?

Ans:- No.

c)       What is the ground of Analogy?

Ans. Resemblance is the ground of Analogy.

d)      “A cause is the sum-total of conditions positive and negative taken together” – Who said the statement?

Ans:- John Stuart Mill.

e)      “The law of causation is the material ground of induction” – is it true?

Ans:- Yes.

f)       What is ‘Vera Causa’?

Ans. If the hypothesis refers to an agent or cause, it should be a Vera cause. The term ‘Vera cause’ literally means a true cause.

g)      What is the meaning of the Latin word ‘Mores’?

Ans. ‘Mores’ means customs or habits.

h)      Who is the founder of scientific realism?

Ans. British Philosopher John Locke

i)        “Observation is finding a fact and experiment is making one” – Who said this?

Ans:- According to Bain, 'observation is finding a fact and making an experiment.'

j)        How many Purusarthas are there?

Ans. There are four Purusarthas.

k)      Is ethics a positive science?

Ans. No, it is not a practical science.

l)        From which Sanskrit root the word ‘Dharma’ is derived?

Ans:- The word 'religion' is derived from the Sanskrit root word 'dhri', which means 'continuous'.

2. Define scientific induction?                     2

Ans. Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instances in reliance on the principle of the uniformity of nature and the law of causation. Example: all mean are mortal.

3. Explain very briefly why the conclusion of unscientific induction is probable.                   2

Ans: - Conclusion of unscientific induction only in potential. It can never reach the certainty of scientific induction. Because there is no attempt to clarify by proving any causal relationship between the facts.

4. Why observation and experiment are called the material grounds of induction?                 2

Ans: - Induction establishes general propositions on the examination of particular examples and these special examples which form the material of induction are supplied by observation and experiment. Thus, we conclude that "all people are mortals." Examples of the deaths of particular individuals from which the general proposition is established are supplied by observation. Again, in some cases, the experiment supplies the material.

5. State two advantages of simple observation.                    2

Ans:- Two advantages of simple observation are –

a)      The scope of simple observation is wider than in experiment as it can be applied universally.

b)      In observation, we can proceed from a cause to the effect as well as from an effect to its cause.


    What do you mean by ‘Paradox of Induction’?            2

Ans. Mill’s contradictory statement regarding the principle of the Uniformity of Nature is known as the paradox of induction. It simple means that the ground of induction is itself the result of induction. Mills calls it a fundamental principle or general axiom of induction and an assumption implied in every cases of induction. It is the ground of all kinds of induction.

6. Mention two features of scientific realism.                       2

Ans: - Two features of scientific realism: -

(i) Like other forms of realism, scientific realism also holds that the object of knowledge is independent of the mind of the knower.

(ii) We cannot know anything directly. We can know it by its properties. Primary qualities are independent of the mind of the knower. In contrast, secondary qualities are dependent on the mind.

7. Define primary qualities with examples.                      2

Ans. The qualities which are independent of the knowing mind or the qualities which are objective properties of an object are called the primary qualities. These primary qualities are the fundamental qualities of an object in the sense that they are the objective qualities and the necessary properties of an object. These qualities remain unchanged through all the changes of time and place.

8. What is the meaning of ‘esse est percipii’?                  2

Ans. The meaning of “Esse Est Percipi” is that the existence of a thing consists in its being perceived. Berkeley holds that as all knowledge come from experience, we know nothing but the ideas of our minds. Since what we perceive is an ideal of the mind, thus the conception of extra mental matter is a dogmatic and superfluous assumption. The external world does not exist and consequently, the primary and the secondary qualities are subjective ideas of the mind. Berkeley admits the existence of minds alone of the finite minds and of God or the infinite Mind. His doctrine is known as Subjective Idealism.

9. Name the form of idealism with which dialectical method is associated. State the name of the philosopher who advocated this method.                                                2

Ans: Objective idealism is associated with dialectical method. Hegel advocates this method.

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10. State two features of objective idealism.                                       2

Ans: - Two features of objective idealism: -

(i) The final thought, according to Hegel, is the ultimate reality. The Absolute manifests its ideas through finite ideas.

(ii) The relation between absolute thought and the world of things and mind is that one cannot exist without the other.

11. Why is habitual action considered as an object of moral judgement?      2

Answer: Yes, habitual action is the objective of moral judgment. Habits occur repeatedly as a result of voluntary actions. Then, voluntary action is taken by a rational agent with a choice of will, pre-version and termination and means. So, these actions are the objects of moral judgment.

12. State the second canon of elimination. Name the experimental method which is based on this cannon of elimination.                        1+1=2

Ans: - The method of method is based on the following canon of elimination:

Nothing is the cause of an incident that is thought to be the cause of an isolated incident.


    State one advantage of the method of Agreement. Why is the method called the method of discovery?     1+1

Ans: - One advantage of the method of agreement: -

(i) The methodology of the agreement is strong. So, it has a wider range of application than the method used.

The method of agreement is a method of discovery. The compromise method is one of the primary motivational methods. Mill himself admits that it is an easy prey to a plurality of causes.

13. State two points of difference between inductive and deductive inference.                                 2

Ans: - Logicians classify in terms of deduction and expulsion: -

(i) The premises in deduction are considered correct, while the induction complex derives from experience.

(ii) The objective of deduction is only on formal truth while the purpose of induction is on formal and physical truth. The question in deduction is whether the conclusion is necessarily from the given premises.

14. Explain the meaning of ‘Varnasrama dharma’.                                             4

Ans: - Varnashrama Dharma or Varna-Ashram Dharma is the Vedic system of life goals, social divisions and stages of life and all four goals are encouraged to strive for balance and harmony and not to neglect anyone's favor For the other. This is the basis of the ideal Kriya-Ashram Dharma system of life in which the society is divided into four social groups (varna) according to a natural talent and tendency. Intellectual (Brahmin), Administrator (Kshatriya), Entrepreneur (Vaishya) and Proletarian (Shudra). The ideal life span of a person is divided into four stages; Student (Brahmacharin), Grihastha (householder), Nivitti (Vanaprastha) and a Tyagi (ascetic).

15. State Flint’s definition of religion.                      4

Ans. According to Flint, “Religion is man’s belief in being or being mightier than himself and inaccessible to his sense but no indifferent to his sentiments and actions, with the feelings and practices which flow from much a belief.”


    Mention any four characteristics of religion.  

Ans. The characteristics of religion are as follows –

1)      The motives and the driving forces in religion are the basic human wants and desires – survival, growth, well being, self-realization.

2)      Religion involves belief in a supreme power or powers on which human beings depend for their well-being.

3)      Religion involves rituals which are believed to be way of winning the favour of God or gods.

4)      Like all major human activities, religion assumes a social institution from.                               

16. Mention two practical imperfections of the material of Agreement.                                4

Ans: - Two practical defects of the content of the agreement: -

(i) Practical impaction

(ii) symptomatic effect

(iii) Problem in distinguishing work-cause from co-effect and co-existence.

17. State two points of similarity between religion and morality.                            2+2=4

Ans. The four points of similarity between religion and morality are –

1)      Both religion and morality believe in God.

2)      Both of them believe in immortality of the soul.

3)      Both springs from a distinct source in the human mind.

4)      Both religion and morality influence each other.


    State four points about the nature of hypothesis.                                        4

Ans. Three characteristic of hypothesis are:

1) Observation presents some fact to be explained. There is an eclipse of the sum or moon. But there should be some explanation for this event.

2) Hypothesis or a supposition is made to explain the facts which call for an explanation. At this stage, the materials supplied by observation are insufficient, but we must make some supposition.

3) The provisional supposition is made under the idea that if we deduce conclusions from the supposition, and find that the conclusions tally with facts, the hypothesis is true; if No, opposition should be abandoned in favor of the second provisional suppression. Thus Hypothesis involves Deduction and Verification.


18. Distinguish between good analogy and bad analogy.                                                4

Ans. Analogy is a kind of Inductive argument based on imperfect resemblance between two things. Analogy does not conclusively prove a causal connection but it is most fruit full source of hypothesis. When we find two things resemble each other in certain important attributes, we frame the hypothesis that they will possible resemble each other in other respects. We find that the Earth and the planet Mars resemble each other in possessing similar kind of atmosphere, land water etc. We suppose that the planet Mars will further resemble the earth in being inhabited by living creatures.

      Analogy is divided into two kind’s viz.:

a)      Good Analogy and

b)      Bad Analogy.

The strength of Analogy depends on the number and the importance of the points of the difference and the number of the unknown points. So, a God analogy means an argument in which a conclusion is drawn from the presence of essential resemblance between two things.

For example: When we find that the earth and the planet Mars resemble each other in processing similar kind of atmosphere, land, water, etc. we suppose that the planet Mars will further resemble the Earth in being inhabited by living creatures.

A Bad Analogy is one, in which the conclusion is drawn from superficial points of resemblance. For example – plants, like men, have birth, growth and decay and death. Men possess intelligence therefore planets also possess intelligence. This is Bad Analogy, because there is no essential connection between the points of resemblance and the inferred property.


    Distinguish between cause and condition.                                 4

Ans. Condition means any necessary factor of a cause. While cause is the sum total of the conditions positive and negative taken together. So, the relation between cause and condition is the relation between the whole and its parts. Condition is a part of the cause and all the conditions, positive and negative taken together constitute the cause. For example, a picture falls form the wall. The falling of the picture is the effect. The positive conditions are violent slumming of the door, the weakness of the cord with which the picture was hung up, the heaviness or the picture. The negative conditions are some support other than the weak cord, the presence of some person at the time when the picture fell so that he might have caught hold of it. If these negative conditions had been present, the picture would not have fallen. Both these positive and negative conditions constitute the cause.

19. State along with brief explanations about the four conditions of legitimate hypothesis.           4

Ans. The conditions of valid Hypothesis are as follows:

a)      The Hypothesis must not be self contradictory or absurd but should be conceivable and finite.

b)      The Hypothesis must be free from conflict with establish truths. That means the supposition should not violate a law of which we have positive evidence.

c)       The Hypothesis must be based on facts and must have for its object a real cause or Vera cause.

d)      Lastly, the Hypothesis must be verifiable.

That means, a legitimate Hypothesis must be capable of either being proved or disproved. A hypothesis from which nothing can be deduced is of no value.

20. Write short note on the fallacy of post hoc ergo propter hoc.                             4

Ans. A careless use of the Method of Difference sometimes leads to the fallacy of post hoc propter hoc. The appearance of a comet in the sky may be followed by the death of king, but we certainly can not argue that the appearance of the comet is the cause of the death. In practical life we depend on simple observation for the supply of instances, but in such cases the Method of Difference does not yield conclusive results. In order to agree with the special requirements of this Method the instances must be supplied by Experiment.

21. Name the theory which states that external world can be known directly as it really is. Also, define this theory and state one important drawback of this theory.                          1+2+1=4

Ans:- Naive Realism.

Naive Realism believes in the reality of the external objects and ideas are exact copies of external real things and their qualities.

One important drawback of this theory:

(a) Naive Realism gives over emphasis on perception.

22. Write short note on “conflict of desires”.          4

Ans. Desire is a craving of an agent for the attainment of an object to relieve some wants. It is a state of tension between the actual state of the self and the idea of a future state not yet realized. It is a complex mental state consisting of cognitive, affective and conative elements. In a complex action many wants demand satisfaction. If one satisfied, the other has to be rejected although. Thus, there arises in the mind a competition, rivalry or conflict between the different motive and desires.


    What is voluntary action? State the three stages of voluntary action.                     1+3=4

Ans. Voluntary actions are actions performed by an agent deliberately and intentionally in order to realize some foreseen ends. They are actions performed by the self with volition or will. Habits are the results of repeated voluntary actions. So, Habitual action is voluntary.

      A voluntary action has three stages viz., the mental stage, the bodily stage and external stage of consequence.

1)      The Mental Stage: Every voluntary action as actuated by a spring of action. It is feeling of want, actual or ideal. It is either an instinct or an appetite, or an intellectual, moral, or aesthetic craving. A feeling of want is always painful and generates an impulse. But it is usually mingled with pleasure which arises from the anticipation of satisfaction of the want in future. Thus the painful feeling of want is mixed with an agreeable feeling of ideal satisfaction. But the disagreeable feelings predominates over the agreeable feeling. The feeling of want e.g. an appetite leads the rational agent to think out some appropriate object which is necessary to relieve the want. The object itself to remove the want, is said to be the end of the action. The idea of thought of the object which excites the state of desire for its attainment is called the motive.

The spring of action or the feeling of want is converted into a desire. Desire is a craving to satisfy a feeling of want by attaining its proper object. In desire there is the idea of the object or end or motive which will satisfy the feeling of want. There is also the idea of the means for realizing the end.

In complex action many wants demand satisfaction. If one is satisfied, the other has to be rejected altogether. Thus, there arises in the mind a competition, rivalry or conflict between the different motives and desires.

When there is a conflict of motive, the self arrests action and deliberates upon the merits and demerits by different motives. The self weights them in the balance and considers the pros and cons. This is called deliberation.

After deliberation, the self choose a particular motive and identifies itself with it. It chooses a particulars course of action and rejects the rest. This act of selection of one motive to exclusion of others is called choice or decision.

2)      Bodily stage: When choice or resolution has been made and kept by resolution, it is converted into bodily action. The idea of movement attended to carries itself out into actual movement by its impulsive character of the idea of movement. This explanation is offered by William James.

3)      External Stage of consequence: The bodily action produces changes in the external world. These are called consequences which included the following realization of the chosen and intended means, desirable, or undesirable or both, certain foreseen consequences and certain unforeseen, unintended, accidental consequences.

23. Define Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism. Is Berkeley a solipsist?                           2+2=4

Ans. Berkeley’s idealism may be regarded as subjective and psychological. Because the external world is appropriate by individual consciousness. So, the material world will lose its existence and unity when it is unperceived by other minds. There is no objective existence of bodies outside the mind. Berkeley’s Idealism may be equated with solipsism. But such a view creates difficulties in many ways. Firstly, when a man does not perceive an object, will it cease to exist. Secondly, it is impossible for any person to perceive all things at a time.

      To solve these problems Berkeley shifted his ground of idealism from the finite mind to infinite mind. In order to maintain continuity and unity of existence of things, Berkeley introduces God as the immediate cause of all our perception, all as permanent ideas in God’s mind. Now this second phase of idealism of Berkeley may be said to be a revival of platonic idealism. So, the later phase of Berkeley’s idealism seems to have objective character. But like most of the critics, Berkeley’s idealism can not be regarded as objective idealism.

24. Define unscientific induction with example. State why is it called ‘Unscientific’? Mention briefly three characteristics of unscientific induction.                 2+1+3=6

Ans. Unscientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition on the ground of mere uniform or uncontradicted experience without any attempt at explaining a causal connection.

(a) This raven is black.

      That raven is black.

\ All ravens are black.

(b) This student is intelligent.

      That student is intelligent.

\ All students are intelligent.

The characteristics of Unscientific Induction are –

a)      Unscientific Induction establishes general real propositions. Induction establishes proposition. A propositions states a relation between two terms. We seek to prove a connection between two terms and establish a proposition. But the proposition which we derive in the conclusion is general propositions. As we know, general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. But the general proposition, which induction established are not verbal. They are real propositions. A verbal proposition merely stages the connotation or a part of the connotation of a term. But a real proposition does not merely analyzes the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.

b)      The conclusion of Unscientific Induction is based on mere uniform or uncontradicted experience. Unscientific Induction draws its conclusion on the ground of mere enumeration or counting instances. So far as our experience goes, we have never come across any contradictory cases. On the strength of this uniform or uncontradicted experience, we arrive at the general proposition.

c)       In unscientific induction, there is no knowledge of any causal connection. Hence, the conclusions are merely probable. Probability is a matter of degrees, ranging from zero to what very nearly approaches scientific certainty. But however high the degree of probability, unscientific induction can never reach the certainty of scientific induction.


Define Analogy with example. Explain the characteristics of Analogy.  2+4=6

Ans. Analogy is a kind of inference in which on the basis of observation of resemblance in some particular properties between two things. Analogy does not conclusively prove a causal connection but is most fruitful source of hypothesis. When we find two things resemble each other in certain attributes we frame hypothesis that they will possible resemble each other.

Characteristics of Analogy are as follows –

a)   Analogy is not based on causal connections. So its conclusion is probable and not certain.

b)   Analogy is based on resemblance of certain properties between two things. This resemblance or similarity is imperfect.

c)    An analogy is a kind of induction because analogy is an inductive leap. In the inductive leap, we pass from known truth to unknown truth.

d)   An analogy is a type of ingestion in which we pass from special to not special but from special to general.

25. Define cause after Carveth Read and explain briefly the qualitative marks of cause.     2+4=6

Ans: - According to Carveth Reid, the cause of any event is qualitatively, "the immediate, unconditional, irreversible, antecedent of effect" and qualitatively "equal to the effect."

Qualitative Marks of Cause:

(a) The cause is relative to a given event called an effect. Cause and effect are relative to each other. This means, effect is impossible without cause and impossible without effect. Both are dependent on each other. Again, the same cause can sometimes be a cause and sometimes as an effect.

(b) Cause and effect are always events of time. An event in time means a change in the current state of things. If there is a change in the current state of things, then the question of work-cause will come in our mind, why is there a change? Similarly, we also inquire into floods, wars, political revolutions and so on.

(c) Is inconsistent with the cause effect. Cause and effect are serially related. When two events occur sequentially, the antecedent is called the 'antecedent' and the following is called the 'consequent'.

(d) Is indiscriminate for the cause effect. Every effect has a cause. This cause always precedes the effect. This means that the cause is antecedent, but irregular response to the effect may not be the cause.


What is experiment? What are the advantages of experiment over observation?     2+4=6

Ans: - Experimentation is the artificial reproduction of events in pre-arranged and self-selected situations and thus when they are reproduced, they are observed. In the experiment, events are artificially reproduced in the laboratory by the investigator. The investigator can vary the circumstances he prefers.

Benefits of experimentation over observation: -

(i) First, the experiment enables us to multiply our examples indefinitely.

(ii) Secondly, experiments often enable us to isolate the phenomenon we are studying.

(iii) Third, the experiment certainly enables us to separate the surrounding conditions.

(iv) Finally, the experiment enables us to examine things with coolness and gamut.

26. Define hypothesis with a scientific example. Explain hypothesis concerning law and hypothesis concerning collocation. 2+4=6

Ans: - A hypothesis is an attempt to explain the provisional suppression made to explain a fact or event scientifically. When we see something striking or unusual, we begin to interpret it.

For example: If a person has cholera, we can assume that he has taken impure water. Therefore, we outline the hypothesis to explain the events.

The hypotheses are as follows:

(i) Hypothesis related to law: Sometimes the agent is known, but the law or scheme according to which he acts is not known. We construct a hypothesis in how an agent functions.

(ii) Hypothesis about agent: The law can be known, but it may be that the particular agent acting according to this known law is unknown.

(iii) Hypothesis about the aorta: Collocation means a system of circumstances, which makes it possible for the effects to occur. If the agents are known, but the aorta is not known, then we belong to the hypothesis frame.


What are the different kinds of hypothesis according to Stebbing? Explain each of them with example.  2+4=6

Ans: - L.S. Stebbing, a modern logician distinguishes three main types of hypothesis:

(i) Explanatory hypothesis: It is the simplest type of hypothesis. Explanatory hypotheses are designed to explain an event. The purpose of these hypotheses is to account for the occurrence of an event by the interpretation of facts. The relation of Newton's hypothesis to gravitational attraction is an example of explanatory hypothesis.

(ii) Descriptive hypothesis: This type of hypothesis is usually designed to present a description of a complex phenomenon to give an accurate description that helps in investigating the phenomenon under investigation. Ptolemy's geocentric hypothesis gave a geometric representation of heavenly bodies. This is a descriptive hypothesis.

(iii) Corresponding hypothesis: This type of hypothesis is the development of a descriptive hypothesis. An analogy hypothesis means a hypothesis that what is true of one set of phenomena may be true for another set because both sets possess some common formal properties. Maxwell established his famous electro-magnetic theory based on the similarity between gravity and electrostatics. This is an example of the analogy hypothesis.

27. State Mill’s Canon of the method of difference. Describe briefly four disadvantages or defects of this method.         2+4=6

Ans: - The difference in method used is the canon of elimination - "When no antecedents can be left without the consequent disappearance, such antiquity must be the cause or part of the cause."

In this method two examples are collected. In these two examples one is positive example, while the other is negative. The material required to apply the differential method is a jar filled with air, a vacuum jar, and a bell. Sound will be heard in the presence of air. This is called a positive example. In the negative example, air is absent from the jar and the sound will not be heard.

The following are the disadvantages are as follows –

1)      The method of difference does not enable us to deal completely with the plurality of causes the method of difference can only prove that a particular antecedent is the cause in a given case. But cannot prove that it is the only cause.

2)      The method of difference does not enable us distinguish a cause from a condition. The introduction of a new element is not necessarily the sole cause of any change which may happen.

3)      The method of difference cannot be applied to reason directly from logic. In the experiment, we can move from cause to effect, but not back from effect. The effects are not under our control. Since the method of the method is essentially a method of experimentation, the method also cannot be applied to logic with direct effect.


Explain the method of Residues with example. Do you think it to be an improvement upon the method of Difference? Explain.   2+4=6

Ans: - According to Mill, "The effect of some particular fraction from an event such as a sub-duct is known by distorted induction, and the residue of the event is the effect of the remaining antidepressants." For example- We have a loaded vehicle. Let's weigh and pay attention to the weight. We already knew the weight of the car. By subtracting the weight of the car from the total weight of the loaded vehicle, we conclude that the difference is the weight of the load. Depending on the cause of one thing, it cannot be the cause of a different thing. When we are working with a complex set of phenomena, and we already know the cause of some of them, we conclude that the cause of residual or residual phenomena is to be found among the remaining antis accidents.

The method of residual is a special modification of the method difference. Because, the principle contained in both these methods is the same. If there are two instances that differ only in one situation that are present in one instance, and are absent in the other, then the condition in which the two groups differ alone is the cause of the other circumstances in which the two groups differ results alone. The difference between the two methods is that, in the method difference, the instance in which the condition does not arise is supplied by the experiment, while in the residuals of the method, that instance is supplied with the B deduction from the previous induction. .



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