Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2016 | AHSEC Class 12 Solved Question Papers

Logic and Philosophy Solved Question Papers' 2016
AHSEC Class 12 Solved Question Papers
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: Three hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. (a) Which of the following statement is correct?

1)      Induction is concerned only with formal truth.

2)      Induction is a process of generalization.

3)      The conclusion of an induction follows necessarily from its premises.

Ans. Induction is process of generalization.

    (b) In which of the following kinds of Induction there is inductive leap.

1)      Perfect Induction.

2)      Analogy.

3)      Colligation of facts.

4)      Induction of parity of reasoning.

Ans. Analogy.

    (c) All men are ‘religious” – Is this proposition analytic or synthetic?

Ans: Synthetic.

    (d) “Cause and effect are events in time” – Is it quantitative mark of causation.

Ans: Yes.

    (e) Which of the following statement is correct?

1)      Experiment is finding a fact and observation is making one.

2)      In an experiment, one cannot pass from the effect to the cause.

3)      Observation succeeds experiment.

Ans. In an experiment, one cannot pass from the effect to cause.

    (f) Fill in the blank:

Mill’s paradox of induction is said to commit the fallacy of Post Hog Ergo Proter Hog.

    (g) Which of the following is correct?

1)      Direct verification of a hypothesis can be done by observation.

2)      Direct verification of a hypothesis can be done by observation or experiment.

3)      Direct verification of a hypothesis can be done by experiment only.

Ans: Direct verification of a hypothesis can be done by observation or experiment.

(h) Does the method of residues require pervious knowledge of the cause or effect for its application?

Ans:- Yes.

    (i) Name the experimental method which is based on the following canon:

    “Nothing is the cause of a phenomenon which is known to be the cause of a different phenomenon”

Ans: The Method of difference.

    (j) The method of agreement is a method of experiment and the method of difference is a method of observation” – Is it correct?

Ans: Correct.

    (k) Who did introduce the “theory of Pre-established harmony”?

Ans:  Gottfried Leibniz.

    (l) Who is regard as the father of modern philosophy?

Ans: Rene Descartes.

2. State any two similarities between Scientific Induction and Unscientific Induction.

Ans. Scientific induction established a general real proposition based on observation of particular instances reliance in the principle of uniformity of nature and law of causation. For example – All man are mortal.

          Unscientific induction establishment of general real proposition on the basis of merely uniform or uncontradicted experience without any attempt to explaining causal connection For example – All crows are black.

      The two similarities between scientific and unscientific induction are –

a)      Both scientific and unscientific induction established a general real proposition.

b)      Both scientific and unscientific based on observation of fact.

      The two dissimilarities between scientific and unscientific induction are –

a)      Scientific induction based on two kinds of observation that is simple observation and experiment. But unscientific induction based on only simple observation.

b)      The process of scientific induction is complex. But the process of unscientific induction is simple.

3. Define analogy with suitable example?

Ans. Analogy is a kind of inference in which on the basis of observation of resemblance in some particular properties between two things. Analogy does not conclusively prove a causal connection but is most fruitful source of hypothesis. When we find two things resemble each other in certain attributes we frame hypothesis that they will possible resemble each other.

      For example: We find that the Earth and the Planet mass resemble each other possessing similar kind of land, water atmosphere etc. suppose we find that the plant mass resemble earth in being inhabitant by living creatures.

4. Define efficient cause with an example?

Ans. Efficient Cause: The labour, skill energy spent in making a thing is called efficient cause. For example skill we over applies to the material in making cloth is the efficient cause of the effect.

5. Briefly explain positive condition with the help of a suitable example?

Ans. Condition means any necessary factor of cause. There are two types of condition –

1)      Positive condition.

2)      Negative condition.

Positive condition: The condition which helps to produce the effect is called positive condition. For example: A labour falls from the roof of a home and dies. The highnesses of the roof, hardness of the soil, get hurt in chest are the positive conditions. Because in presence these conditions event must be occur.

Negative condition: The condition which tends to prevent the effect is called negative condition. For example: A labour fall from the roof of a home and dies this physical strength, getting anybody’s help and his proper treatment are negative conditions. These negative condition must be absent in order that they effect may be produced.

6. What is crucial instance?

Ans. Crucial Instance: A crucial instance is an instance which can only be explained by one of the contending hypothesis and not with other hypothesis. It may be obtained by simple observation and experiment.

7. Briefly explain any one condition of a valid hypothesis with the help of a suitable example?

Ans: The hypothesis must be free from conflict with the establishment of truth. This means that the opposition should not violate a law for which we have positive evidence.

8. What do you mean by analogical hypothesis?

Ans. Analogical hypothesis means a hypothesis that what is true in one set of phenomenon may be true in the other set of phenomenon, both sets possess the common certain formal properties. For example: Maxwell established his electromagnetic theory on basis of resemblance between gravitation and electrostatics.

9. Why are the inductive method called ‘Method of Elimination’?

Ans. Elimination means exclusion of accidental circumstances. The inductive method is purely negative. They are concerned merely with exclusion of irrelevant and accidental circumstances. To prove a accidental circumstances may be brought out and determined. So the inductive method called the method of elimination.

10. What do you mean by realism?

Ans. Realism believes in the reality of external objects independent of the knowing mind. There are two forms of realism – Naïve realism and scientific realism.

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11. State two points of difference between realism and idealism?

Ans: Realism believes in the reality of external objects independent of the mind. Knowledge is an exact copy of the representation of additional mental objects. We know external objects through our sense organs. The main forms of realism are (i) Naive Realism, (ii) Scientific Realism.

Idealism refuses to be independent of the mind knowing the reality of external objects. Mind is the primary reality. Either there are no external objects or they are dependent on the mind. Our thoughts do not represent external objects independent of the mind. Idealism considers reality to be dependent on the mind. The main forms of idealism are (i) Subjective Idealism, (ii) Phenomenalistic Idealism, (iii) Objective Idealism.

12. Explain the etymological meaning of the Dharma?

Ans: The word ‘Dharma’ is derived from the Sanskrit root word ‘Dhri’, which means ‘to sustain’.

13. Mention two points of difference between religion and morality?

Ans. The two points of difference between religion and morality are –

a)      Religion has it centre in god while morality has it centre in man.

b)      Morality implies progress towards infinity. Whereas, religion implies progress within infinity.

c)       Religion is wider in scope, whereas the scope of morality is very narrow.


Mention any two characteristics of religion?

Ans. Religion is generally defined as consisting believe in god, a creator sustainer, moral governor of the world together with the feelings, love trust and the acts of divorce, dedication and worship.

      Two characteristics of religion are –

1)      The motive and driving forces which are basic human wants desire that is survival growth well being self realization.

2)      Religion involves belief in supreme power or powers on human beings depend for their well beings.

14. State two similarities and two dissimilarities between analogy and scientific induction.

Ans. Analogy is a kind of inference which on the basis of observation of resemblance in some particular properties between two things. Analogy does not conclusively prove a causal connection so it conclusion is always probable. But it is most fruitful source of hypothesis. In analogy there is an inductive leap.

      Scientific induction established a general real proposition based on observation of particular instances reliance in the principal of uniformity of nature and law of causation.

      Two similarities between analogy and scientific induction are –

a)      Both scientific induction and analogy based on observation.

b)      Both analogy and scientific induction are the forms of induction proper. In both there is inductive leap.

      Two dissimilarities between analogy and scientific induction are –

a)      In analogy we proceed from particular to particular which in scientific induction we proceed particular to general.

b)      In analogy there is no knowledge of causal connection. But scientific induction based on the knowledge of causal connection.

15. Briefly explain with example, any two rules on which the value or strength of an analogy depends.

Ans. The value or strength of an analogy depends on the following rules –

1)      The greater the number and the importance of the known point of resemblance greater the value of analogical argument. For example: the points of resemblance between men and lower animal more in number more important than the points of resemblance between man and plants.

2)      The greater the number and importance of the known points of difference less the value of analogical argument. For example: the points of difference between Earth and moon are more in number and more important than the points of difference between earth and mass.

16. Explain with example the quantitative mark of cause from the stand point of the law of the conservation of mater and energy?

Ans. According to the law of conservation of matter of energy the cause is equal to the effect. Because the quantity of mater and energy in the world is constant, it never increases or decrease but forms may be changed. So far as matter is concerned the effect is identical with the cause but the forms may be different. When certain quantity of Oxygen is combined with the certain quantity of Hydrogen in the form of water form is changed. But the weight of water is equal to the weight combining substance. Again so bar as energy is concerned with the quantity of energy is equal to the cause. For example: When a moving body loses its motion it appears that the energy is lose. But actually it is converted into another energy viz. Heat follows so energy is quantity equal to the cause.


Explain the relation between cause and condition with the help of suitable example?

Ans: - Status means any essential factor of a cause. While the reason for this is the sum of the positive and negative conditions overall. So, the relation of cause and condition is the relation between the whole and its parts. Status is a part of reason and all conditions, positive and negative, are taken together. For example - a picture wall is formed. The picture has a falling effect. Positive condition is the violent slum of the door, the weakness of the cord with which the picture was hung, the heaviness of the picture. Negative positions support something other than a weak cord, the presence of a person eats when the picture collapses so that it can hold it. If these negative conditions were present, the picture would not have fallen. These lead to both positive and negative conditions.

18. Distinguish between hypothesis concerning agent and hypothesis concerning.

Ans. Hypothesis concerning agent is related with the agent the incident. The law is known but it may appear that the particular agent which is to operate according to known law may be unknown in such cases we frame Hypothesis concerning agent. To take an example from everybody life; A burglary is committed in my neighbour’s hours in order to known the thief we frame a hypothesis as the agent in question.

      On the other hand, Hypothesis concerning law related with the law of operation. Suppose the agent is known but the plan or rule according to which its acts may be unknown in such cases we frame Hypothesis concerning law. To an example from Science Newton knew the agents the Sun, the Earth and Moon but the manner in which they acted upon each other may be unknown, Newton suppose that their motion might be due to their attraction one another in a particular way on the basis of this supposition Newton discovered law of gravitation and law of operation.


      State two advantages of experiment over observation and two advantages of observation over experiment

Ans. Two advantages of experiment over observation are –

1)      Experiment enables us to multiply our instances indefinitely. If one experiment does not observe the phenomenon under investigation satisfactory we may try again and again. But in observation we wait for opportunities.

2)      Experiment enables us to vary the surroundings circumstances indefinitely. In experiment we examine the different set of circumstances under which the phenomenon’s under investigation occur, but in observation we have to depend on the bounty of nature for the supply of a suitable variety of instances.

      Two advantages of observation over experiment –

1)      Firstly observation can be applied universally and has wider in scope then experiment. There are certain phenomenon’s which cannot the artificially reproduced. They are beyond our control for example: eclipse, earthquake. Again there are certain phenomenon’s which are dangerous to experiment. In such cases we have to fall back on observation and wait until the phenomenon makes its appearance in the ordinary course of nature. The range of observation is wider then experiment.

2)      Observations give us to reason from the cause to effect as well as effect to cause. But experiments only proceed from cause to effect and not with the backward of effect to the cause. Want to find a dead rabbit and want to know the cause of the death. By experiment we cannot find a cause. Here we must conjecture a cause and then make an experiment.

19. Briefly explain the four stages of a hypothesis.

Ans: - Following are the four stages of hypothesis are –

(i) Observation of facts is the first stage of hypothesis. The observation presents before us to explain some facts. Through observation we are exposed to the facts. As a result of this contact, questions arise in the mind about the incident which call for clarification.

(ii) Formation of hypothesis is the second stage of hypothesis. Since we have to explain the reason behind an event and the actual explanation is not known to us, we outline a provisional hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. Since the data in out-of-settlement are insufficient, we outline a provisional suppression, otherwise it would be difficult to make an actual statement.

(iii) Application of deductive method is the third stage of the hypothesis. At this stage, by temporal suppression, some conclusions are drawn.

(iv) Verification is the fourth stage of the hypothesis. At this stage, the conclusions drawn from the hypothesis are verified. Such validation is done under the idea that if the conclusion that we ended up with the facts from the hypothesis, the hypothesis is true. If not, the hypothesis is in favour of another provisional suppression.


      State four uses of hypothesis

Ans. Four uses of Hypothesis are –

1)      Hypothesis forms are the starting points of scientific investigation which make observation and experiment possible scientific investigation aims at the establishment of general real proposition.

2)      Hypothesis makes deduction possible. In such cases when the result of observation is uncertain and experiment cannot be employed. Hypothesis only the way to prove a causal consequence from it and makes and compare them with actual facts of experience.

3)      Hypothesis is an aid to explanation. A phenomenon is explained when it cause of law of operation is proved. Hypothesis assumes three forms such as Hypothesis concerning law, Hypothesis concerning agent, Hypothesis concerning collocation. A phenomenon is explained when the hypothesis is proved.

4)      In our everyday life we constantly make an hypothesis to explain the fact of experience. For example returning the home in the evening we find that the glass pane of window was broken we from hypothesis that a stone or cricket ball will be thrown it against from outside. This is the case of popular hypothesis.

20. State two advantage and two disadvantages of the method of agreement.

Ans: - The method of agreement has two advantages and two disadvantages:

(i) The methodology of the agreement is strong. So, it has a wider range of application than the method used. Anything that can be used can also be seen, but whatever can be seen cannot be used. Therefore, the method of agreement has a wide scope.

(ii) The method of agreement enables us to move from effect to effect and cause to effect. Since this method is a method of observation. So, we can take the cause as its effect and find out its cause.

      The two disadvantages of the method of agreement –

                    i.      Practical Imperfection.

                  ii.      Characteristic Imperfection.

(i) Practical imperfection: In this method of agreement it is impossible to assure ourselves that we know all the antecedents.

(ii) Characteristics imperfection: The method of agreement liable to be by the polarity of cause frustrated.

21. Briefly express four points of criticism against naïve realism.

Ans:- The three criticism against Naive Realism are:

(i) Naive Realism gives over emphasis on perception.

(ii) Naive Realism can not explain error, illusions, hallucinations etc.

(iii) Naive Realism refuses to accept the subjective aspect of knowledge. But in knowing process both subjective and objective aspects have their own role.


Briefly express four points of criticism against scientific realism.

Ans: - Scientific realism believes in the reality of external objects. John Locke is an exponent of scientific realism. He distinguishes between primary qualities and secondary qualities. Locke believes that the primary qualities, that is, expansion, impermeability, speed, shape, etc. are objective and real. But secondary qualities, that is, color, taste, smell, etc. are the subjective states or thoughts of our mind. Because, secondary attributes are different for different individuals in different circumstances and at different times for the same person. One is sweet, the other is bitter.

22. State any four points of difference between primary qualities and secondary qualities.

Ans. The qualities which are independent of the knowing mind or the qualities which are objective properties of an object are called primary quality. Primary qualities are the fundamental qualities do an object in the sense they objective quality and necessary factor of an object. These qualities remain unchanged through all the changes or time places.

      The qualities which are independent of the knowing mind or the qualities which are subjective properties of an object are called secondary. For example: Taste, colour, smell etc. These qualities may be changed from person to person from place to place. As secondary qualities are mind dependent. So they cannot determine as the exact nature of an object.

      The four points of difference between primary qualities and secondary qualities are –

a)      Primary qualities are the fundamental qualities for the human being. But secondary qualities are not fundamental qualities for human being.

b)      External objects are main shelter of primary qualities. But both external objects and knower’s mind is the main shelter of secondary qualities.

c)       Primary qualities reflect the idea of the mind, while secondary qualities may appears differently to different individuals.

d)      Primary qualities can only determine as the original nature of an object. While secondary qualities are mind dependent.

23. Briefly discuss the nature of ethics.

Ans: - Ethics is a science which is a systematic description of the causes and effects of things. A positive science is related to what it is. It deals with the facts and explains them for their reasons. It tries to find out what is really about a thing by exploring its relations, especially its causal relationships. This conduct is concerned with the decision on whether it is right or wrong. It passes judgments of value on human actions in terms of moral ideals. It is not related to decisions, but to decisions of value. Thus morality is not a positive science but an authentic science.

Natural science is also known as positive science . A standard science is also called a regulatory science. Positive science deals with facts or phenomena and examines certain congruences or laws that govern them. They describe the ways in which certain classes of objects are found to exist on the ways in which certain classes of phenomena are found in nature. He does not have an ideal in any direct or any context, in terms of which facts are judged. But normative science is concerned not with the facts or their laws, but with the norms that govern human life.


Briefly discuss the scope of ethics.

Ans: Scope of morality: -

(i) Ethics is not an art: Ethics does not teach how to live an ethical life. It only helps us to justify right and good which motivates us to achieve the highest goal of human being.

(ii) Ethics is general: General science is concerned with what should be done. A natural science or descriptive science is concerned with "what is matter". It deals with the facts and tells them their reasons. General ethics deals with the criteria by which we can judge human actions.

(iii) Morality is a value: Ethics is a science of values ​​because it explores the forms of conduct or behavior, which have the character of moral obligation. Ethics is related to a phenomenon and it observes, classifies and observes, classifies and explains them by moral values.

(iv) No clear boundary: Between science and philosophy, there is a clear distinction between descriptive science and standard science and between ethics and philosophy. Ethics is both scientific and philosophical, authentic and descriptive science.

24. Why is the method of concomitant variation considered as a modified version of the method of agreement and the method of difference? Explain.    3+3=6

Answer: - A combination of methods of agreement and difference. Compare different conditions in which a certain factor exists for similar conditions in which that factor is absent. Then show that a certain effect is seen in all and only in instances in which that factor is present. If there are two or more instances in which an event occurs, there is usually only one condition, while two or more instances are different, the effect of the event, or a necessary pat of the cause or cause.

This is simply called the "joint method", this principle only represents the application of the methods of agreement and difference. Typically, a joint method of agreement and difference can be represented:

ABC is associated with x y z

ADE is also with x v with B C with y z.


Define the joint method of agreement and difference in your own words and give a concrete example of it. Why do some logicians regard this method as “the method of double agreement” or “the double method of agreement”? Explain.           2+2+2=6

Ans: A concrete example of joint method of agreement and difference:

Malaria is present in places where there are anopheles mosquitoes. Then, in places where there are no mosquitoes, malaria is absent. Therefore, on the basis of this observation we can conclude that the anopheles mosquito is the cause of malaria.

In the joint method of agreement and difference we find "agreement of presence" of positive examples and "agreement of absence" of negative examples. This dual method of absence and presence agreement establishes a cause-effect relationship. Therefore, this method is called the "double agreement method".

25. What is Berkeley’s subjective idealism? Briefly express four points of criticism against this type of idealism. 2+2+2=6

Ans: - Berkeley advocates subjective idealism. For him, there is nothing but a set of properties and all properties of matter, both primary and secondary, subjective states or thoughts of the mind outside. Therefore Berkeley argues that the existence of an object is believed to exist. If something is created by al knowledge, then it is believed that if all knowledge comes from experience, then we know nothing but the thoughts of our mind, because what we experience is the mind Have an idea. Thus the conception of extra psychosis is a dogmatic and superficial notion. The external world does not exist and therefore the attributes of the world, both primary and secondary, are subjective views of the mind. But perception or thoughts are not formed by one's own mind, but communicated to us by God, which is the cause of external sensations. He instills sensations in the finite mind according to the prescribed laws. Berkeley accepts the existence of the mind alone, the finite mind and God or the infinite mind. He denies the existence of the outside world. So, his theory is called Subjective Idealism.

Four points of criticism against this type of idealism: -

(i) Berkeley states that their existence exists. But the neo-realist argues, the object exists, it is independent of the mind and its knowledge. Its existence is not affected by the knowledge of the mind.

(ii) Berkeley Aegins, we experience a sensation or object at the same time, we cannot separate the two from each other in real perception, so they must be identical with each other. According to him, 'Blue' and 'Sense of Blue' are identical with each other, as they cannot be considered separate from each other. But without diversity in objects, sensation cannot be accounted for.

(iii) Berkeley believes that sensible things are sensations of thoughts or ideas, similar to the thoughts or sensations we have experienced. Berkeley never proves this notion. The mind immediately considers objects, nor through thoughts. The mind knows them directly and immediately.


Critically discuss objective idealism of Hegel.

Ans: - According to Hegel, complete soul is not limited to ego or mind non ego. The Absolute Soul is imminent as a universal cause in nature and mind. It is a subliminal cause in nature and becomes a conscious cause in the finite mind. Absoluteness is the universal cause. It appears more and more in substance, life and mind. It becomes conscious in the human mind. Person is subjective mind. Society is an objective mind. God is the ultimate mind. Nature has a dialectical motion of absolute or universal reason. Man has a dialectical movement of finite reason. They correspond to each other. Dialectical movement is a process or development through thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. A is the thesis. Is a non-antithesis. They are involved in synthesis. B is a thesis. Is non-B antithysis. There is high synthesis of C, B and non-B. The ranges go from low to high until they reach full self consciousness, which is the highest and most comprehensive category. One can be conscious of the self, not be related to the self — the self can be considered separate from the self and cannot be related to the self — or nature. It can be self-conscious when it erases the distinction between itself and its object and assimilates them into a higher unity with each other. Absoluteness is the highest unity of self-consciousness that manifests in the distinction between subject and object, self and ego, ego and non-ego, limited mind and nature, and their interrelationship and harmony. Finite minds are replicas of the complete. Hegel says, It is only rational that is real ”.


(i) Modern realists hold Hegelian's view that while nature is rational or sensible, they do not accept their dependence on any mind, finite or infinite. They refuse to be an expression of its spiritual character or eternal mind.

(ii) Hegel acknowledges the importance and importance of human souls. He accepts the relative freedom of the human mind and yet attests his creativity and independence. He seems to be denying new values ​​and his power to create new orders.

26. Does the end justify the means? Give a reasoned analysis with the help of concrete examples.           6

Ans. Sometimes the end chooses in good, but the means employed for the attainment of the end are bad. Should such an action as realize a good end thorough bad means be regular led as right? It Crispin used to steel leather from the rick to make share for the poor. Can his action be justified? Evidently we cannot regard his conduct as right, because though his motive was good, he employed immoral means. A merchant adopts unfair means to gain wealth. His motive is gain which is not wrong. But he adopts wrong means. This makes his action wrong. Thus we came to the conclusion that intention is the object of moral judgement. It includes the motive or the idea of the end as well as the idea of the means an action is good if the end as well as the means adopted is good. So, the end never justifies the means. 


Briefly explain any three purusarthas.        2x3=6

Ans: - All three efforts are mentioned here: -

(i) Kama: Kama literally means desire. Desire is inspiring the power of all actions. Among the many aspects of the human mind, the desire aspect is important. Man's nature is largely the nature of his desires. The reason for mutual attraction among different organisms is work. This is the basis of creation. This is necessary for the growth of the race.

But it has been asserted by Hindu thinkers that work should be based on religion. When time and space are not taken into consideration, Kama can get bad results and infamy. Thus it is important in the regulation of social life. Such as religion, Artha and Moksa, Kama and other needs and the life system of society.

(ii) Meaning: According to Kautilya, "means the livelihood of a human being". Meaning refers to wealth and power. Man is unable to conduct his life without the physical means of living, because the physical aspect is an important as any other aspect of life. Man is not only a soul, he is also a body. Our body demands certain things. We often require food, clothing, shelter, luxury items to meet the demands of the body. We should try to earn money so that we can meet these demands. But the satisfaction of earning our desires and wealth should be obtained on the basis of our religious conduct. If the means of earning money are good, it will be appropriate. Such wealth will give prosperity to the individual as well as the society.

(iii) Moksa: Moksa consists in realizing the pure spiritual nature of oneself beyond its physical, critical and mental or intellectual nature, which is limited by time and accident. It is involved in realizing the transit of body, life, mind and intellect and time, space and reason. It contains a sense of self-infinity and immortality.

27. Explain the nature of religion.

Ans: Religion refers to the belief in a human being towards God or gods and attempts to commune with him.

Religion is generally defined as a belief in a living being as the creator, perpetual and moral governor of the world, together with a sense of devotion, dedication and worship, reverence, faith and love and voluntary acts. Is with a sense of. Thus, religion touches the entire human being. Total personality with all aspects of life. All three elements of human life, ie, thinking, feeling and desire are included in religion in a characteristic way.

Dharma refers to man's belief in God or gods and trying to commune with him. There are two aspects of religion. Internal and external. The inner aspect refers to the intellectual and emotional elements present in the consciousness i.e. thoughts, thoughts and feelings that man has in relation to God. The external aspect refers to practical activities i.e. rites, ceremonies through which religious sentiment is expressed.

Religion has both personal and social aspects. In its personal aspect, religion is more or less a matter of personal experience and conviction of personal liberation. By the social aspect we mean a spirit, devotion to the ideal of social unity and all that is necessary for its promotion and maintenance.

Religion is undeniably a feature of our personality that is formed by the three elements of thinking, feeling and desire. But when we consider some of the prevailing definitions of religion, we find that they restrict religion to any one or other of these elements. An important conjecture of these definitions can help us understand the nature of religion.


Critically explain any one of the following views:            6x1=6

(i) Religion is the source of morality.

(ii) Morality is the source of religion.

Ans: — According to Marlinyu, morality leads to religion. Our consciousness or moral faculty gives us an institution of compulsion of right, wrong, and right conduct. We must do what is right. Obligation means obligation to some higher officials. I am not the source of this moral obligation. If I were so, I could annualized my sense of obligation in my happiness. Society or state also cannot be the source of my moral responsibility because it cannot take cognizance of all my actions, objectives, and intentions. Therefore, God who is omniscient and omnipotent must be the ultimate source of moral authority, for which we are responsible for our actions. Therefore, Martineau believes that moral obligation and responsibility are essential to the idea of ​​God.

Again, our conscience or moral faculty gives us ideal moral excellence. This ideal of excellence realized in God. Therefore, according to Merlinou, morality gives rise to belief in God as a source of moral authority and as being ideally perfect. Belief in God and immortality of soul are common to religion and morality. The existence of God and the immortality of soul is the core articles of faith in religion. Similarly, the immortality of the soul and the existence of God are the basic postures of morality. The moral ideal is always realized in God, which symbolizes moral perfection. Then, moral life demands that the soul should not be destroyed along with the body.

Some point of difference between religion and morality are as follows:

(i) Religion has its center in God while morality has its entry into man.

(ii) It is conceivable there can be a purely humanistic morality in which there is no reference to the supernatural, but religion will lose its essential nature if all references to the supernatural are excluded from it.

(iii) Religion is broader than morality. Morality deals only with goodness, but religion is more widespread because it includes other values ​​namely beautiful, truthful, and good.

(iv) Ethics means progress towards infinity. Whereas Dharma means progress within the infinite.


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