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Human Resource Management Solved Question Papers: November' 2016


2016 (November)
COMMERCE (General)
Course: 301 (Human Resource Management)
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions
(New Course)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 24
Time: 3 hours
1. Answer the following questions as directed:
a)      Human Resource Management is a continuous process. (Write True or False)     1
b)      ‘Demotion’ is a source of recruitment. (Write True or False)                                1
c)       Give two examples of non-financial incentives.                                         2
Ans: Job security, Recognition, Better job title
d)      Mention two advantages of training.                                              2
Ans: Increase in efficiency of worker, Reduced supervision.
e)      There is no difference between ‘coordination’ and ‘cooperation’. (Write True or False)   1
f)       Mention one function of HRD manager.                                        1
Ans: HRD manager focuses on upgrading the skills and competencies of the employees in order to improve the performance of the employees on the job.
2. Write short notes on any four of the following:                                           4x4=16

a)      Objectives of Human Resource Planning.
Ans: Objectives of Human Resource Planning
1. To ensure optimum utilization of human resources currently available in the organization.
2. To assess or forecast the future skill requirement of the organization.
3. To provide control measures to ensure that necessary resources are available as and when required.
4. A series of specified reasons are there that attaches importance to manpower planning and forecasting exercises. They are elaborated below:
Ø  To link manpower planning with the organizational planning
Ø  To determine recruitment levels.
Ø  To anticipate redundancies.
Ø  To determine optimum training levels.
Ø  To provide a basis for management development programs.
Ø  To cost the manpower.
Ø  To assist productivity bargaining.
Ø  To assess future accommodation requirement.
Ø  To study the cost of overheads and value of service functions.
Ø  To decide whether certain activity needs to be subcontracted, etc.

b)      Job enrichment.
Ans: Job Enrichment: The concept of job enrichment has been derived from Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation in which he has suggested that job content is one of the basic factors of motivation. If the job is designed in such a manner that it becomes more interesting and challenging to the job performer and provides him opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth, the job itself becomes a source of motivation to the individual.
According to P. Robbins, “Job enrichment refers to the vertical expansion of the jobs. It increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of his work.”
In the words of Robert Albanese, “Job enrichment sometimes called. “Vertical job leading’ is a job redesign strategy that focuses on job depth.”
According to Mondy. Holmes, and Flippo, “Job enrichment refers to basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job so to provide for the satisfaction of the motivation needs of personnel.
c)       Inductive training.
Ans: Induction or Orientation Training. Induction training is given immediately after employment to introduce the new extension staff members to their positions. It begins on the first day the new employee is on the. This type of training is aimed at acquainting the new employee with the organization and its personnel. Induction training for all new personnel should develop an attitude of personal dedication to the service of people and the organization. This kind of training supplements whatever preservice training the new personnel might have had. Concerning the characteristics of a new employee. Van Dersal said that when people start to work in an organization for the first time, they are eager to know what sort of outfit they are getting into, what they are supposed to do, and whom they will work with. They are likely to be more attentive and open-minded than experienced employees. In fact, the most favourable time for gaining employees' attention and for moulding good habits among them is when they are new to the job.
d)      Scientific selection.
Ans: Meaning of Scientific Recruitment and Selection: A scientific recruitment and selection process involves job analysis, advertisements, written tests, personal interviews, medical examination, final selection, etc. It is conducted by different types of experts. It involves a lot of time, energy and money (cost). Even then most organisations use a scientific selection policy to select their employees. This is because of its various advantages. The scientific selection policy is given importance due to these reasons:-
a)      Right job for the Right Person : Scientific selection policy helps to find the right man for the right job. It also helps to find the right job for the right person.
b)      Reduces Labour Absenteeism and Turnover : Labour absenteeism refers to the employees remaining absent from regular duty (work). Labour turnover refers to the employees leaving the company. Scientific selection policy helps to reduce both labour absenteeism and labour turnover. This is because it helps to select the right candidates for the right jobs. These candidates get job satisfaction, and they have a high morale. So they will not remain absent, and they will not leave the company.
c)       Reduces wastages, damages and accidents : The scientific selection policy results in the selection of qualified and interested employees. These employees will be very careful while handling machines and materials. This will reduce wastage, damages and accidents.
d)      Reduces Training and Supervision Costs : The scientific selection policy results in the selection of qualified and interested employees. These employees require less training and supervision. This will reduce the training and supervision cost.
e)      Improves Goodwill of the Company : Scientific selection policy results in the selection of interested employees. These employees will maintain very good relations with the shareholders, customers, public etc. This will improve the goodwill of the company.

e)      Compensation management.
Ans: Meaning and Definition of Compensation
In layman’s language the word ‘compensation’ means something, such as money, given or received as payment for service. The word compensation may be defined as money received in the performance of work, plus the many kinds of benefits and services that organization provides their employee. It refers to wide range of financial and non-financial rewards to employee for their service rendered to the organization. It is paid in the form of wages, salaries , special allowance and employee benefits such as paid vacation, insurance, maternity leaves, free travel facility , retirement benefits etc.
According to Wendell French,” Compensation is a comprehensive term which includes wages, salaries and all other allowance and benefits.”
Wages are the remuneration paid for skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled operative workforce. Salary is the remuneration of those employees who provides mental labour to the employer such as supervisor, office staff, executive etc wages are paid on daily or hourly basis where as salary is paid on monthly basis.
Objectives of Compensation Management
The compensation paid to employees is agency consideration. Each party to agency tries to fix this consideration in its own favor. The employers want to pay as little as possible to keep their costs low. Employees want to get as high as possible. The compensation management tries to strike a balance between these two with following specific objectives:
1. Attracting and Retaining Personnel: From organisation’s point of view, the compensation management aims at attracting and retaining right personnel in the organisation. In the Indian corporate scene, there is no dearth of personnel at operative levels but the problems come at the managerial and technical levels particularly for growing companies. Not only they require persons who are well qualified but they are also retained in the organisation. In the present day context, managerial turnover is a big problem particularly in high knowledge-based organisations.
2. Motivating Personnel: Compensation management aims at motivating personnel for higher productivity. Monetary compensation has its own limitations in motivating people for superior performance. Alfie Kohn (an American author and lecturer who has explored a number of topics in education, parenting, and human behavior.) has gone to the extent of arguing that corporate incentive plans not only fail to work as intended but also undermine the objectives they intend to achieve. He argues that this is due to inadequate psychological assumptions on which reward systems are based.
f)       Incentives.
Ans: Incentives are monetary benefits paid to workmen in lieu of their outstanding performance. Incentives vary from individual to individual and from period to period for the same individual. They are universal and are paid in every sector. It works as motivational force to work for their performance as incentive forms the part total remuneration. Incentives when added to salary increase the earning thus increase the standard of living. The advantage of incentive payment are reduced supervision, better utilisation of equipment, reduced scrap, reduced lost time, reduced absenteeism and turnover & increased output.
According to Burack & Smith, “An incentive scheme is a plan or programme to motivate individual or group on performance. An incentive programme is most frequently built on monitory rewards ( incentive pay or monetary bonus ), but may also include a variety of non monetary rewards or prizes.”
Kinds of Incentives
Incentives can be classified under the following categories:
1. Individual and Organizational Incentives
2. Financial and Non-Financial Incentives
3. Positive and Negative Incentives
1) Individual and Organizational Incentives: According to L.G. Magginson, “Individual incentives are the extra compensation paid to an individual for all production over a specified magnitude which stems from his exercise of more than normal skill, effort or concentration when accomplished in a predetermined way involving standard tools, facilities and materials.” Individual performance is measured to calculate incentive where as organizational or group incentive involve cooperation among employees, management and union and purport to accomplish broader objectives such as an organization-wide reduction in labour, material and supply costs, strengthening of employee loyalty to company, harmonious management and decreased turnover and absenteeism
2) Financial and Non-financial Incentives: Individual or group performance can be measured in financial terms. It means that their performance is rewarded in money or cash as it has a great impact on motivation as a symbol of accomplishment. These incentives form visible and tangible rewards provided in recognition of accomplishment. Financial incentives include salary, premium, reward, dividend, income on investment etc. On the other hand, non-financial incentives are that social and psychological attraction which encourages people to do the work efficiently and effectively. Non-financial incentive can be delegation of responsibility, lack of fear, worker’s participation, title or promotion, constructive attitude, security of service, good leadership etc. The incentives that have a monetary and financial benefit are called financial incentives.

3. (a) Discuss the nature and scope of Human Resource Management.                  7+7=14
Ans: Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Management (HRM)
Human Resource Management (HRM) can be defined as the set of programs, functions, and activities designed and performed in order to maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness. It is a management function that helps organization in recruiting, selecting, training, developing and managing its members. HRM is concern with the management of people in the organization from Recruitment to Retirement.
According to Flippo, “human resource management is the   planning , organizing , directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance, and separation of human resource to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are accomplished.”
Nature/Characteristics of HRM
Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:
a)      It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.
b)      Its focus is on results rather than on rules.
c)       It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.
d)      It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.
e)      It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
f)       It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
g)      It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees.
h)      It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization.
i)        It is a multi-disciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, economics, etc.
Scope of HRM
The scope of HRM refers to all the activities that come under the banner of HRM. These activities are as follows
1. Human resources planning: Human resource planning or HRP refers to a process by which the company to identify the number of jobs vacant, whether the company has excess staff or shortage of staff and to deal with this excess or shortage.
2. Job analysis design: Another important area of HRM is job analysis. Job analysis gives a detailed explanation about each and every job in the company. Based on this job analysis the company prepares advertisements.
3. Recruitment and selection: Based on information collected from job analysis the company prepares advertisements and publishes them in the news papers. This is recruitment. A number of applications are received after the advertisement is published, interviews are conducted and the right employee is selected thus recruitment and selection are yet another important area of HRM.
4. Orientation and induction: Once the employees have been selected an induction or orientation program is conducted. This is another important area of HRM. The employees are informed about the background of the company, explain about the organizational culture and values and work ethics and introduce to the other employees.
5. Training and development: Every employee goes under training program which helps him to put up a better performance on the job. Training program is also conducted for existing staff that have a lot of experience. This is called refresher training. Training and development is one area were the company spends a huge amount.
6. Performance appraisal: Once the employee has put in around 1 year of service, performance appraisal is conducted that is the HR department checks the performance of the employee. Based on these appraisal future promotions, incentives, increments in salary are decided.
7. Compensation planning and remuneration: There are various rules regarding compensation and other benefits. It is the job of the HR department to look into remuneration and compensation planning.
8. Motivation, welfare, health and safety: Motivation becomes important to sustain the number of employees in the company. It is the job of the HR department to look into the different methods of motivation. Apart from this certain health and safety regulations have to be followed for the benefits of the employees. This is also handled by the HR department.
9. Industrial relations: Another important area of HRM is maintaining co-ordinal relations with the union members. This will help the organization to prevent strikes lockouts and ensure smooth working in the company.
Or
(b) Describe the significance of human resource management functions in the management of a large industrial organization.                     14
Ans: Significance/importance/need /Role of HRM
HRM becomes significant for business organization due to the following reasons.
1. Objective: HRM helps a company to achieve its objective from time to time by creating a positive attitude among workers. Reducing wastage and making maximum use of resources etc.
2. Facilitates professional growth: Due to proper HR policies employees are trained well and this makes them ready for future promotions. Their talent can be utilized not only in the company in which they are currently working but also in other companies which the employees may join in the future.
3. Better relations between union and management: Healthy HRM practices can help the organization to maintain co-ordinal relationship with the unions. Union members start realizing that the company is also interested in the workers and will not go against them therefore chances of going on strike are greatly reduced.
4. Helps an individual to work in a team/group: Effective HR practices teach individuals team work and adjustment. The individuals are now very comfortable while working in team thus team work improves.
5. Identifies person for the future: Since employees are constantly trained, they are ready to meet the job requirements. The company is also able to identify potential employees who can be promoted in the future for the top level jobs. Thus one of the advantages of HRM is preparing people for the future.
6. Allocating the jobs to the right person: If proper recruitment and selection methods are followed, the company will be able to select the right people for the right job. When this happens the number of people leaving the job will reduce as the will be satisfied with their job leading to decrease in labour turnover.
7. Improves the economy: Effective HR practices lead to higher profits and better performance by companies due to this the company achieves a chance to enter into new business and start new ventured thus industrial development increases and the economy improves.
4. (a) What do you mean by Human Resource Planning? Discuss the importance of human resource planning functions in the management of a large company.                                    4+10=14
Ans: Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.
According to Gordon Mc Beath, “HRP is concerned with two things: Planning of manpower requirements and Planning of Manpower supplies”.
According to Beach, “HRP is a process of determining and assuming that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which meet the needs of the enterprise and which provides satisfaction for the individuals involved”
Simply HRP can be understood as the process of forecasting an organization’s future demands for and supply of the right type of people in the right number. In other words HRP is the process of determining manpower needs and formulating plans to meet these needs.
Significance or need or Importance of Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning aims at fulfilling the objectives of manpower requirement. It helps to mobilize the recruited resources for the productive activities. The human resource planning is and important process aiming to link business strategy and its operation. The importances of human resource planning are as follows:
1. Future Manpower Needs: Human resource planning ensures that people are available to provide the continued smooth operation of an organization. It means, human resource planning is regarded as a tool to assure the future availability of manpower to carry on the organizational activities. It determines the future needs of manpower in terms of number and kind.
2. Coping with Change: Human resource planning is important to cope with the change associated with the external environmental factors. It helps assess the current human resources through HR inventory and adapts it to changing technological, political, socio-cultural, and economic forces.
3. Recruitment of Talented Personnel: Another purpose of HR planning is to recruit and select the most capable personnel to fill job vacancies. It determines human resource needs, assesses the available HR inventory level and finally recruits the personnel needed to perform the job.
4. Development of Human Resources: Human resource planning identifies the skill requirements for various levels of jobs. Then it organizes various training and development campaigns to impart the required skill and ability in employees to perform the task efficiently and effectively.
5. Proper Utilization of Human Resources: Human resource planning measures that the organization acquires and utilizes the manpower effectively to achieve objectives. Human resource planning helps in assessing and recruiting skilled human resource. It focuses on the optimum utilization of human resource to minimize the overall cost of production.
6. Uncertainty Reduction: This is associated with reducing the impact of uncertainty which are brought by unsudden changes in processes and procedures of human resource management in the organization.
Or
(b) What is job analysis? Evaluate its significance in human resource management.                                       4+10=14
Ans: Meaning and Definition Job analysis:
The process of studying and collecting informations relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate product of this analysis are job description and job specification. It analyze the content & characteristics of the job and requirements/ qualifications needed to perform those jobs.
According to Michael L. Jucius, “Job analysis refers to the process of studying the operations, duties and organizational aspects of jobs in order to derive specifications or as they called by some, job descriptions.”
According to DeCenzo and P. Robbins, “A job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job.”
Thus, job analysis involves the process of identifying the nature of a job (job description) and the qualities of the likely job holder (job specification).
Importance/Uses of Job analysis
1. Achievement of Goals: Weather and Davis have stated, “Jobs are at the core of every organization’s productivity, if they are designed well and done right, the organization makes progress towards its objectives. Otherwise, productivity suffers, profits fall, and the organization is less able to meet the demands of society, customer, employees, and other with a stake in its success.”
2. Organizational Design: Job analysis will be useful in classifying the jobs and the interrelationships among the jobs. On the basis of information obtained through job analysis, sound decisions regarding hierarchical positions and functional differentiation can be taken and this will improve operational efficiency.
3. Organization and Manpower Planning: It is helpful in organization planning, for it defines labour in concrete terms and co-ordinates the activities of the work force, and clearly divides duties and responsibilities.
4. Recruitment and Selection: Job analysis provides you with information on what the job entails and what human requirements are required to carry out these activities. This information is the basis on which you decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.
5. Placement and Orientation: Job analysis helps in matching the job requirements with the abilities, interests and aptitudes of people. Jobs will be assigned to persons on the basis of suitability for the job. The orientation programme will help the employee in learning the activities and understanding duties that are required to perform a given job more effectively.
6. Employee Training and Management Development: Job analysis provides the necessary information to the management of training and development programmes. It helps in to determine the content and subject matter of in training courses. It also helps in checking application information, interviewing test results and in checking references.
7. Job Evaluation and Compensation: Job evaluation is the process of determining the relative worth of different jobs in an organization with a view to link compensation, both basic and supplementary, with the worth of the jobs. The worth of a job is determined on the basis of job characteristics and job holder characteristics. Job analysis provides both in the forms of job description and job specification.
8. Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal involves comparing each employee’s actual performance with his or her desired performance. Through job analysis industrial engineers and other experts determine standards to be achieved and specific activities to be performed.
9. Health and Safety: It provides an opportunity for identifying hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors so that corrective measures may be taken to minimize and avoid the possibility of accidents.
10. Employee Counselling: Job analysis provides information about career choices and personal limitation. Such information is helpful in vocational guidance and rehabilitation counselling. Employees who are unable to cope with the hazards and demands of given jobs may be advised to opt for subsidiary jobs or to seek premature retirement.
5. (a) Explain the meaning of ‘recruitment’ and ‘selection’. Distinguish between recruitment and selection. 2+2+10=14
Ans: Meaning of recruitment: Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. When more persons apply for job then there will be a scope for recruiting better persons. The job-seekers too on the other hand, are in search of organizations offering them employment. Recruitment is a linkage activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.
Definitions: Flippo – “Recruitment is the process of searching prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for the jobs in the organization”
McFarland- “ The term recruitment applies to the process of attracting potential employees of the company.”
Thus recruitment may be considered as a positive action as it involves attracting the people towards organization.  The main purpose is to have a rich inventory of eligible persons from amongst whom the most suitable candidates can be selected for employment in the organization.
Meaning of Selection: Human resource selection is the process of choosing qualified individuals who are available to fill positions in an organization. In the ideal personnel situation, selection involves choosing the best applicant to fill a position. Selection is the process of choosing people by obtaining and assessing information about the applicants with a view to matching these with the job requirements. It involves a careful screening and testing of candidates who have put in their applications for any job in the enterprise. It is the process of choosing the most suitable persons out of all the applicants. The purpose of selection is to pick up the right person for every job.
It can be conceptualised in terms of either choosing the fit candidates, or rejecting the unfit candidates, or a combination of both. Selection involves both because it picks up the fits and rejects the unfits. In fact, in Indian context, there are more candidates who are rejected than those who are selected in most of the selection processes. Therefore, sometimes, it is called a negative process in contrast to positive programme of recruitment.
According to Dale Yoder, “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes-those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”.
According to Thomas Stone, “Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job”.
In the words of Michael Jucius, “The selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not candidates possess the qualifications called for by a specific job or for progression through a series of jobs.”
According to Keith Davis, “Selection is the process by which an organisation chooses from a list of screened applicants, the person or persons who best meet the selection criteria for the position available.”
Thus, the selection process is a tool in the hands of management to differentiate between the qualified and unqualified applicants by applying various techniques such as interviews, tests etc. The cost incurred in recruiting and selecting any new employee is expensive.
Difference between Recruitment and Selection: Difference between recruitment and selection has been described by Flippo as, “Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation. It is often termed positive as is stimulates people to apply for jobs, selection on the other hand tends to be negative because it rejects a good number of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.” Recruitment and selection differs in following manner:
Basis
Recruitment
Selection
a)      Meaning
It is the process of searching and Motivating candidates to apply for Job.
It is that process of staffing which rejects the unsuitable candidates and choose the suitable candidates.
b)  Purpose
The basic purpose is to create a large pool of applicants for the jobs.
The basic purpose is to eliminate as many candidates as possible until the most suitable candidates get finalized.
c)   Scope
Recruitment is restricted to the extent of receipt of application.
Selection includes sorting of the candidates.
d)  Positive /Negative process
Recruitment is a positive process. As more and more applicant are sought to be attracted.
Selection is a negative process as more applicants are rejected than selected.
e)  Criteria
It gives freedom to applicants. Any one is free to apply.
It gives very little freedom to applicants. Applicants must meet the selection criteria.
f)    Outcomes
The outcome of recruitment is application pool which becomes input for
selection process.
The outcome of selection process is in the form of finalising candidates who will be
offered jobs.
Or
(b) Critically discuss the various sources of recruitment.                              14
Ans: Sources of Recruitment:
The finding out where suitable candidates are available and informing them about the openings in the organization is the most important aspect of recruitment process. The candidates may be available inside the organization as well outsider it. Recruitment sources can be described as: internal and external sources.
A. Internal Sources: Internal source is one of the important sources of recruitment the employees already working in the organization may be more suitable for higher jobs than those recruited from outside. The present employees may help in the recruitment of new persons also internal sources are discussed as follows:
Transfers: Transfer involves shifting of persons from present jobs to other similar places. These don't involve any change in rank, responsibility and prestige. The numbers of persons don't increase with transfer but vacant posts may be attended to.
Promotions: Promotions refers to shifting of persons to positions carrying better prestige, higher responsibilities and more salaries. The higher positions falling vacant may be filled up from within the organization. A promotion doesn't increase the number of persons in the organization. A person going to get a higher position will vacate his present position. Promotion avenues motivate employees to improve their performance so that they get promotions to higher position.
Present Employees: The present employees of an enterprise may be informed about likely vacant position. The employees recommend their relations or persons intimately known to them. Management is relieved of botheration for looking out prospective candidates. The persons recommended by the employees will be suitable for the job because they know the needs & requirement of various positions. The existing employees take full responsibility for those recommended by them and try to ensure their proper behavior and performance. This method of recruiting employees is suitable for lower position only. It may create nepotism and favoritism. The workers may be employees on the basis of their recommendations and not suitability.
Demerits of Internal Sources: Internal sources of recruitment have certain disadvantages as follows -
a)      Recruitment of internals leads to inbreeding and discourages new blood with new ideas from entering into the organization.
b)      It is possible that internal sources ultimately dry up and hence it may be difficult to find suitable persons from within the organization.
c)       In case of certain jobs such as advertising, style, designing, basic research etc recruitment from within is not desirable.
d)      As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play an important role in the selection of personnel.
e)      Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no innovations worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs which require original thinking, this practice is not followed.
f)       Generally for middle level managers internal source is rarely used, however for promoting blue collar workers to white collar jobs internal source is more desirable.
B. External Sources: Every enterprise has to use external sources for recruitment to higher positions when existing employees are not suitable. More person are needed when expansion are undertaken. External methods are discussed as follows.
Advertisement: Advertisement is the best method of recruiting persons for higher and experienced jobs. The advertisements are given in local or national press, trade or professional journals. The requirements of jobs are given in the advertisement. The prospective candidates evaluate themselves against the requirement of jobs before sending their applications. Management gets a wider range of candidates for selection. The flood of applications may create difficulties in the process.
Employment Exchanges: Employment Exchanges run by the government are also a good source of recruitment. Unemployed persons get themselves registered with these exchanges. The vacancies may be notified with the exchanges, whenever there is a need. The exchange supplies a list of candidates fulfilling required qualification. Exchanges are a suitable source of recruitment for filling unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled and operative posts.
Education Institutions: The jobs in trade and industry are becoming technical and complex. These jobs require certain amount of educational and technical qualifications. The employers maintain a close liaison with universities and technical institutions. The students are spotted during the course of their studies. Junior level, executives or managerial may be recruited in this way.
Unsolicited Applicants: Persons in search of employment may contact employers through telephone, by post or in person. Generally, employers with good reputation get unsolicited applications. If an opening is there or is likely to be there then these persons are considered for such jobs. Personnel department may maintain a record of unsolicited applications. When jobs suitable for these persons are available these persons are available these are considered for employment.
Casual Callers: Management may appoint persons who casually call on them for meeting short-term demands. This will avoid following a regular procedure of selection. These persons are appointed for short periods only. They need not be paid retrenchment or layoff allowance. This method of recruitment is economical because management does not incur a liability in pensions, insurance and fringe benefits.
Labour Contractors: It is quite common to engage contractors for the supply of labour. When workers are required for short period and are hired without going through the full procedure of selection etc.., contractors maintain regular contracts with works at their places and also bring them to the cities at their own expense. The persons hired under this system are generally unskilled workers.
Labour Unions: Labour unions are one of the sources of external recruitment. The job seekers are required to register with labour unions, & the labour unions are require to supply the names of persons for filing the vacancies. This method may encourage good co-operation between business firms and labour unions, active participation of persons in labour unions, the development of leadership qualities in workers, etc.,
Consulting Agencies: Consulting agencies are one of the important sources of recruitment, especially for big companies. Consulting agencies are specialised agencies which recruit people on behalf of their clients. They invite application for jobs specified by their clients from job seekers through advertisements, screen the application, interview the candidates and select the suitable candidate. They do these services for their clients for some Fees.
Educational Institutions: Universities, Colleges & Management institute are also one of the sources of recruitment of personnel, particularly for the posts of Scientists, Engineers & Management specialist. They have there own employment bureaus to help business organizations in recruiting the students for various jobs.
Present Employees: Present Employees are also one of the sources of recruitment of personnel. The present employees of the concern are asked by the management to recommend suitable persons for employment in the concern.
Disadvantages of External Sources:
a)      Orientation and training are required as the employees remain unfamiliar with the organisation.
b)      It is more expensive and time-consuming. Detailed screening is necessary as very little is known about the candidate.
c)       If new entrant fails to adjust himself to the working in the enterprise, it means yet more expenditure on looking for his replacement.
d)      Motivation, morale and loyalty of existing staff are affected, if higher level jobs are filled from external sources. It becomes a source of heart-burning and demoralisation among existing employees.
6. (a) Describe in detail the various stages of a training programme.                                       14
Ans: Steps in Training process.
The steps of Training Process are as under:
a)      Organizational Objectives and Strategies: The first step in the training process is an organization in the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we what to be in the future? Its only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strength and weakness of its human resources.
b)      Needs Assessment: Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenge to be met through training and development. Needs assessment occurs at two levels i.e. group level and individual level, an individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short or standards that is when there is performance deficiency. Inadequate in performance may be due to lack of skills or knowledge or any other problem
c)      Training and Development Objectives: Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established. Without clearly-set goals, it is not possible to design a training and development programme and after it has been implemented, there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifying and measurable. This is easy where skilled training is involved.
d)      Conducting Training Activities: Where is the training going to be conducted and how?
Ø  At the job itself.
Ø  On site but not the job for example in a training room in the company.
Ø  Off site such as a university, college classroom hotel, etc.
e)      Designing training and development program: Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques? What is the level of training? What are the principles of learning?  Where to conduct the program?
f)       Implementation of the training programme: Program implementation involves actions on the following lines :
Ø  Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.
Ø  Scheduling the training programme.
Ø  Conducting the programme.
Ø  Monitoring the progress of the trainees.
g)      Evaluation of the Results: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of the results. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development, how far the programme has been useful must be judge/determined. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. In the practice, however organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation.
Or
(b) What do you mean by ‘executive development’? What are the different methods which are generally used for executive development? Explain.                                                                           4+10=14
Ans: Management or Executive development
All those persons who have authority over others and are responsible for their activities & for the operations of an enterprise are managers. Any activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future requirements is management development.
According to Flippo “executive development includes the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competency in their present job but also capabilities for future managerial tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.” 
In simple words, Executive development or management development is a systematic process of learning and growth by which managerial personnel gain and apply knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights to manage the work in their organization effectively and efficiently.
The characteristics of executive development are as follows:
a)      Executive development is a planned and organized process of learning.
b)      It is an ongoing and never ending exercise.
c)       Executive development is a long term process as managerial skills can not be developed overnight.
d)      It aims at preparing managers for managers.
Methods of training for managers/methods of managerial development/executive development:
A) On the job method: On the job method refers to training given to personnel inside the company. There are different methods of on the job training.
1. Job rotation: This method enables the company to train managerial personnel in departmental work. They are taught everything about the department. Starting from the lowest level job in the department to the highest level job. This helps when the person takes over as a manager and is required to check whether his juniors are doing the job properly or not. Every minute detail is studied.
2. Planned progression: In this method juniors are assigned a certain job of their senior in addition to their own job. The method allows the employee to slowly learn the job of his senior so that when he is promoted to his senior job it becomes very easy for him to adjust to the new situation. It also provides a chance to learn higher level jobs.
3. Coaching and counseling: Coaching refers to actually teaching a job to a junior. The senior person who is the coach actually teaches his junior regarding how the work must be handled and how decisions must be taken, the different techniques that can be used on the job, how to handle pressure. There is active participation from the senior.
Counseling refers to advising the junior employee as and when he faces problems. The counselor superior plays an advisory role and does not actively teach employees.
4. Under study: In this method of training a junior is deputed to work under a senior. He takes orders from the senior, observes the senior, attends meetings with him, learns about decision making and handling of day to day problems. The method is used when the senior is on the verge of retirement and the job will be taken over by the junior.
5. Junior board: In this method a group of junior level managers are identified and they work together in a group called junior board. They function just like the board of directors. They identify certain problem, they have to study the problem and provide suggestions. This method improves team work and decision making ability. It gives an idea about the intensity of problem faced by the company. Only promising and capable junior level managers are selected for this method.
B) Off the job training method: Off the job training refers to method of training given outside the company. The different methods adopted here are
1. Classroom method: The classroom method is used when a group of managers have to be trained in theoretical aspects. The training involves using lectures, audio visuals, case study, role play method, group discussions etc. The method is interactive and provides very good results.
2. Simulation: Simulation involves creating atmosphere which is very similar to the original work environment. The method helps to train manager handling stress, taking immediate decisions, handling pressure on the jobs etc. An actual feel of the real job environment is given here.
3. Business games: This method involves providing a market situation to the trainee manager and asking him to provide solutions. If there are many people to be trained they can be divided into groups and each group becomes a separate team and play against each other.
4. Committee: A committee refers to a group of people who are officially appointed to look into a problem and provide solution. Trainee managers are put in the committee to identify how they study a problem and what they learn from it.
5. Conference: Conferences are conducted by various companies to have elaborate discussions on specific topics. The company which organizes the conference invites trainee manager and calls for experts in different fields to give presentation or lecture. The trainee manager can ask their doubts to these experts and understand how problems can be solved on the job.
6. Readings: This method involves encouraging the trainee manager to increase his reading related to his subject and then ask him to make a presentation on what he has learned. Information can be collected by trainee manager from books, magazines and internet etc.
7. In basket training: In this method the training is given to the manager to handle files coming in and to finish his work and take decisions within a specified time limit. The trainee manager is taught how to prioritize his work, the activities which are important for his job and how to take decisions within limited time limit.
(Old Course)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
1. Answer the following questions as directed:
1)   Mention two points of distinction between Human Resource Management and Personnel Management. 2
Ans: Difference between HRM and Personnel Management
1.       Personnel management is a traditional approach of managing people in the organization. Human resource management is a modern approach of managing people and their strengths in the organization.
2.       Personnel management focuses on personnel administration, employee welfare and labor relation. Human resource management focuses on acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of human resources in the organization.
3.       Personnel management assumes people as a input for achieving desired output. Human resource management assumes people as an important and valuable resource for achieving desired output.
2)   Write down two functions of personnel manager.                      2
Ans: Functions of personnel manager: Counsellor, link between the employees and management, welfare role, research role.
3)      Recruitment is the process of stimulating capable applicants for employment. (Write True or False) 1
4)      Authority can be delegated, but responsibility cannot be delegated. (Fill in the blank)           1
5)      Write the full form of CEO. 1 Ans: Chief executive officer
6)      Mention one of the problems of formulating Human Resource Planning.      1 Ans: Employer’s and Employees resistance.
2. Write short notes on any four of the following:                                           4x4=16
a)      Scope of HRM.
b)      Job evaluation.
c)       Need for scientific selection.
d)      Career development.
e)      Competent employees.
f)       Motivation.
3. (a) Discuss the functions of Human Resource Management (HRM).                                                   11
Ans: Functions of HRM:
The function performed by the resource management can broadly be classified into two categories, viz.
(1) Managerial functions, and
(2) Operative functions
(1) Managerial Functions:
Planning: Planning is a predetermined course of actions. It is a process of determining the organisational goals and formulation of policies and programmes for achieving them. Thus planning is future oriented concerned with clearly charting out the desired direction of business activities in future. Forecasting is one of the important elements in the planning process. Other functions of managers depend on planning function.
Organising: Organising is a process by which the structure and allocation of jobs are determined. Thus organising involves giving each subordinate a specific task establishing departments, delegating authority to subordinates, establishing channels of authority and communication, coordinating the work of subordinates, and so on.
Staffing: It is a process by which managers select, train, promote and retire their subordinates This involves deciding what type of people should be hired, recruiting prospective employees, selecting employees, setting performance standard, compensating employees, evaluating performance, counseling employees, training and developing employees.
Directing/Leading: Directing is the process of activating group efforts to achieve the desired goals. It includes activities like getting subordinates to get the job done, maintaining morale motivating subordinates etc. for achieving the goals of the organisation.
Controlling: It is the process of setting standards for performance, checking to see how actual performance compares with these set standards, and taking corrective actions as needed.
(2) Operative Functions: The operative, also called, service functions are those which are relevant to specific department. These functions vary from department to department depending on the nature of the department Viewed from this standpoint, the operative functions of HRM relate to ensuring right people for right jobs at right times. These functions include procurement, development, compensation, and maintenance functions of HRM.
Procurement: It involves procuring the right kind of people in appropriate number to be placed in the organisation. It consists of activities such as manpower planning, recruitment, selection placement and induction or orientation of new employees.
Development: This function involves activities meant to improve the knowledge, skills aptitudes and values of employees so as to enable them to perform their jobs in a better manner in future. These functions may comprise training to employees, executive training to develop managers, organisation development to strike a better fit between organisational climate/culture and employees.
Compensation: Compensation function involves determination of wages and salaries matching with contribution made by employees to organisational goals. In other words, this function ensures equitable and fair remuneration for employees in the organisation. It consists of activities such as job evaluation, wage and salary administration, bonus, incentives, etc.
Maintenance: It is concerned with protecting and promoting employees while at work. For this purpose virus benefits such as housing, medical, educational, transport facilities, etc. are provided to the employees. Several social security measures such as provident fund, pension, gratuity, group insurance, etc. are also arranged.
Or
(b) Discuss in brief the development of Human Resource Management in India.                             11
Ans: Evolution and Growth of Human Resource management
People – The Principal Resource: The principal resource of any organization is people and managing people is the most important and challenging aspect of an organization. What we call human resource management today, dates back to 1800 B.C., which is evident from the inscriptions of Babylonian code of Hammurabi and Kautilya’s Arthasashtra, which explains in detail the importance of selection, incentives, performance evaluation, quality of a manager and wage rates. So, we understand that the concept of managing people has existed even in the previous eras through ancient literature and philosophy. India, China and Greece have been the origin points of human resource management concepts.
Evolution of Human Resource Management
Industrial Revolution:
Till, 1930’s, there was no such department called “personnel management” that was considered necessary to cater to the needs and welfare of the labor society. The factory manager was acting as a link between the workers and the management, and most of the time he had to comply with the rules of the management to satisfy them, even if it were against the welfare of the workers. Also proper attention was not given to areas like, worker safety, security and living conditions. Industrial revolution saw mass exodus of workers to urban areas in search of jobs.
Need for employment Department:
Application of science and technology in production made the rich owners even richer; the poor workers were not paid adequately and their life became miserable. Since the owners lost direct contact with the employees, managers came into the picture to take over control of production and administration. Machines ruled the industry and importance of labor got reduced. This condition existed for sometime until the advent of new and improved management concepts by people like F.W.Taylor who is considered to be the father of scientific management and B.F.Goodrich who was instrumental in forming the “employment department” which can be considered the fore runner of present human resource department.
Introduction of Scientific Management:
Scientific methods were introduced to make the workers perform the job with ease and perfection. It also saved enormous time and reduced the monotony of work. Job-designs, job-specification, training and development and human relations were given due importance and the owners slowly started realizing the importance of labor. Through 1940’s to 1970’s behavioral approach was applied to professional management, the major architects being Abraham Maslow, Herzberg and Douglas McGregor. This approach suggested managers to modify their leadership styles to suit the type of followers and motivate the workers.
Consequences of World War I and II:
World War I and II also had profound influence on Human resource development. The concepts of role playing, improved training methods, supervision and group discussions came into the fray. The advent of labor unions also established a clear pathway for the workers to claim their rights, ably supported by the labor laws enacted by various governments. International labor organization was formed in 1919 which created sensation in the worker community all over the world. All said and done, empowerment of workers has been achieved only in developed nations where “job security” is no more a great concern because job opportunities are more. But in unorganized and small sectors, employers continue to exploit workers because “supply” is more than “demand”. The responsibility to develop and empower the employees solely lies on the shoulders of human resource department. It should try to address the problems of workers to the management and amicably settle issues relating to wages, welfare, safety and security.
4. (a) What do you mean by Human Resource Planning? Explain its significance.                                              4+7=11
Ans: Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.
According to Gordon Mc Beath, “HRP is concerned with two things: Planning of manpower requirements and Planning of Manpower supplies”.
According to Beach, “HRP is a process of determining and assuming that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which meet the needs of the enterprise and which provides satisfaction for the individuals involved”
Simply HRP can be understood as the process of forecasting an organization’s future demands for and supply of the right type of people in the right number. In other words HRP is the process of determining manpower needs and formulating plans to meet these needs.
Significance or need or Importance of Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning aims at fulfilling the objectives of manpower requirement. It helps to mobilize the recruited resources for the productive activities. The human resource planning is and important process aiming to link business strategy and its operation. The importances of human resource planning are as follows:
1. Future Manpower Needs: Human resource planning ensures that people are available to provide the continued smooth operation of an organization. It means, human resource planning is regarded as a tool to assure the future availability of manpower to carry on the organizational activities. It determines the future needs of manpower in terms of number and kind.
2. Coping with Change: Human resource planning is important to cope with the change associated with the external environmental factors. It helps assess the current human resources through HR inventory and adapts it to changing technological, political, socio-cultural, and economic forces.
3. Recruitment of Talented Personnel: Another purpose of HR planning is to recruit and select the most capable personnel to fill job vacancies. It determines human resource needs, assesses the available HR inventory level and finally recruits the personnel needed to perform the job.
4. Development of Human Resources: Human resource planning identifies the skill requirements for various levels of jobs. Then it organizes various training and development campaigns to impart the required skill and ability in employees to perform the task efficiently and effectively.
5. Proper Utilization of Human Resources: Human resource planning measures that the organization acquires and utilizes the manpower effectively to achieve objectives. Human resource planning helps in assessing and recruiting skilled human resource. It focuses on the optimum utilization of human resource to minimize the overall cost of production.
6. Uncertainty Reduction: This is associated with reducing the impact of uncertainty which are brought by unsudden changes in processes and procedures of human resource management in the organization.
Or
(b) What is meant by ‘job analysis’? Explain the process of preparing job analysis.                          4+7=11
Ans: Meaning and Definition Job analysis:
The process of studying and collecting informations relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate product of this analysis are job description and job specification. It analyze the content & characteristics of the job and requirements/ qualifications needed to perform those jobs.
According to Michael L. Jucius, “Job analysis refers to the process of studying the operations, duties and organizational aspects of jobs in order to derive specifications or as they called by some, job descriptions.”
According to DeCenzo and P. Robbins, “A job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job.”
Thus, job analysis involves the process of identifying the nature of a job (job description) and the qualities of the likely job holder (job specification).
Steps in Job Analysis
The various steps of job analysis are given below:
1. Determine the Use of the Job Analysis Information: Start by identifying the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine the type of data you collect and the technique you use to collect them.
2. Collection of Background Information: According to Terry, “The make-up of a job, its relation to other jobs, and its requirements for competent performance are essential information needed for a job evaluation. This information can be had by reviewing available background information.
3. Selection of Jobs for Analysis: To do job analysis is a costly and time consuming process. It is hence, necessary to select a representative sample of jobs for purposes of analysis. Priorities of various jobs can also be determined. A job may be selected because it has undergone undocumented changes in job content. The request for analysis of a job may originate with the employee, supervisor, or a manager.
When the employee requests an analysis it is usually because new job demands have not been reflected in changes in wages. Employee’s salaries are, in part, based upon the nature of the work that they perform. Some organizations establish a time cycle for the analysis of each job. For example: A job analysis may be required for all jobs every three years. New jobs must also be subjected to analysis.
4. Collection of Job Analysis Data: Job data on features of the job, requited employee qualification and requirements, should be collected either form the employees who actually perform a job; or from other employees (such as foremen or supervisors) who watch the workers doing a job and there by acquire knowledge about it; or from the outside persons, known as the trade job analysis who are appointed to watch employees performing a job. The duties of such a trade job analyst are (i) to outline the complete scope of a job and to consider all the physical and mental activities involved in determining what the worker does.; (ii) find out why a worker does a job; and for this purpose he studies why each task is essential for the overall result; and (iii) the skill factor which may be needed in the worker to differentiate between jobs and establish the extent of the difficulty of any job.
5. Processing the Information: Once job analysis information has been collected, the next step is to place it in a form that will make it useful to those charged with the various personnel functions. Several issues arise with respect to this. First, how much detail is needed? Second, can the job analysis information be expressed in quantitative terms? These must be considered properly.
6. Preparing Job Descriptions and Job Classifications: Job information which has been collected must be processed to prepare the job description form. It is a statement showing full details of the activities of the job. Separate job description forms may be used for various activities in the job and may be compiled later on. The job analysis is made with the help of these description forms. These forms may be used as reference for the future.
7. Developing Job Specifications: Job specifications are also prepared on the basis of information collected. It is a statement of minimum acceptable qualities of the person to be placed on the job. It specifies the standard by which the qualities of the person are measured. Job analyst prepares such statement taking into consideration the skills required in performing the job properly. Such statement is used in selecting a person matching with the job.

5. (a) Describe the internal sources of recruitment.                                        11
Ans: The finding out where suitable candidates are available and informing them about the openings in the organization is the most important aspect of recruitment process. The candidates may be available inside the organization as well outsider it. Recruitment sources can be described as: internal and external sources.
A. Internal Sources: Internal source is one of the important sources of recruitment the employees already working in the organization may be more suitable for higher jobs than those recruited from outside. The present employees may help in the recruitment of new persons also internal sources are discussed as follows:
Transfers: Transfer involves shifting of persons from present jobs to other similar places. These don't involve any change in rank, responsibility and prestige. The numbers of persons don't increase with transfer but vacant posts may be attended to.
Promotions: Promotions refers to shifting of persons to positions carrying better prestige, higher responsibilities and more salaries. The higher positions falling vacant may be filled up from within the organization. A promotion doesn't increase the number of persons in the organization. A person going to get a higher position will vacate his present position. Promotion avenues motivate employees to improve their performance so that they get promotions to higher position.
Present Employees: The present employees of an enterprise may be informed about likely vacant position. The employees recommend their relations or persons intimately known to them. Management is relieved of botheration for looking out prospective candidates. The persons recommended by the employees will be suitable for the job because they know the needs & requirement of various positions. The existing employees take full responsibility for those recommended by them and try to ensure their proper behavior and performance. This method of recruiting employees is suitable for lower position only. It may create nepotism and favoritism. The workers may be employees on the basis of their recommendations and not suitability.
Merits of Internal Sources: The following are the merits of internal sources of recruitment:
a)      It creates a sense of security among employees when they are assured that they would be preferred in filling up vacancies.
b)      It improves the morale of employees, for they are assured of the fact that they would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies occur.
c)       It promotes loyalty and commitment among employees due to sense of job security and opportunities for advancement.
d)      The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently employed than outside candidates.
e)      This is because the company maintains a record of the progress, experience and service of its employees.
f)       Time and costs of training will be low because employees remain familiar with the organisation and its policies.
g)      Relations with trade unions remain good. Labour turnover is reduced.
h)      As the persons in the employment of the company are fully aware of, and well acquainted wit, its policies and know its operating procedures, they require little training, and the chances are that they would stay longer in the employment of the organisation than a new outsider would.
i)        It encourages self-development among the employees. It encourages good individuals who are ambitious.
j)        It encourages stability from continuity of employment.
k)      It can also act as a training device for developing middle and top-level managers.
Demerits of Internal Sources: Internal sources of recruitment have certain disadvantages as follows -
a)      Recruitment of internals leads to inbreeding and discourages new blood with new ideas from entering into the organization.
b)      It is possible that internal sources ultimately dry up and hence it may be difficult to find suitable persons from within the organization.
c)       In case of certain jobs such as advertising, style, designing, basic research etc recruitment from within is not desirable.
d)      As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play an important role in the selection of personnel.
e)      Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no innovations worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs which require original thinking, this practice is not followed.
f)       Generally for middle level managers internal source is rarely used, however for promoting blue collar workers to white collar jobs internal source is more desirable.
Or
(b) What do you mean by ‘recruitment’? Distinguish between ‘recruitment’ and ‘selection’.                     4+7=11
Ans: Meaning of recruitment: Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. When more persons apply for job then there will be a scope for recruiting better persons. The job-seekers too on the other hand, are in search of organizations offering them employment. Recruitment is a linkage activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.
Definitions: Flippo – “Recruitment is the process of searching prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for the jobs in the organization”
McFarland- “ The term recruitment applies to the process of attracting potential employees of the company.”
Thus recruitment may be considered as a positive action as it involves attracting the people towards organization.  The main purpose is to have a rich inventory of eligible persons from amongst whom the most suitable candidates can be selected for employment in the organization.
Difference between Recruitment and Selection: Difference between recruitment and selection has been described by Flippo as, “Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation. It is often termed positive as is stimulates people to apply for jobs, selection on the other hand tends to be negative because it rejects a good number of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.” Recruitment and selection differs in following manner:
Basis
Recruitment
Selection
a)      Meaning
It is the process of searching and Motivating candidates to apply for Job.
It is that process of staffing which rejects the unsuitable candidates and choose the suitable candidates.
b)  Purpose
The basic purpose is to create a large pool of applicants for the jobs.
The basic purpose is to eliminate as many candidates as possible until the most suitable candidates get finalized.
c)   Scope
Recruitment is restricted to the extent of receipt of application.
Selection includes sorting of the candidates.
d)  Positive /Negative process
Recruitment is a positive process. As more and more applicant are sought to be attracted.
Selection is a negative process as more applicants are rejected than selected.
e)  Criteria
It gives freedom to applicants. Any one is free to apply.
It gives very little freedom to applicants. Applicants must meet the selection criteria.
f)    Outcomes
The outcome of recruitment is application pool which becomes input for
selection process.
The outcome of selection process is in the form of finalising candidates who will be
offered jobs.

6. (a) Define training. Describe the importance of training in an industrial organization.                                               4+7=11
Ans: Meaning and definition of Training
Training refers to the imparting of specific skill, abilities and knowledge to  employee. System and practices get outdated due to new discoveries in technology, including technical, managerial and behavioral aspects. In this context training enhances the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees to increase efficiency and effectiveness on the prsent job as well as expected future job.
Training is defined by Wayne Cascio as “training consists of planed programs undertaken to improve employee knowledge, skills, attitude, and social behavior so that the performance of the organization improves considerably.”
Training is normally viewed as a short process. It is applied to technical staff, lower, middle, senior level management. When applied to lower and middle management staff it is called as training and for senior level it is called managerial development program/executive development program/development program.
Objectives/purpose/goals of training and development
Defining training objectives in both qualitative and quantitative terms helps in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of training. Involvement of top management is necessary in order to integrate training objective with organizational objectives. Employees will definitely learn best when objectives of the training program were clearly stated to them, objective means the purpose and expected outcome of training activities.
1.       To impart basic knowledge and skill to new entrants required for intelligent performance of definite task in order to induct them without much loss of time.
2.       To assist employees to function more effectively by exposure of latest concepts information and techniques and development of skills required in specific fields including production, purchase, marketing, logistics, information technology etc.
3.       To broaden minds of supervisors. Sometimes, narrowness of outlook may arise in supervisors because of specialization. In order to correct this narrowness they are provided with opportunities and interchange of experience.
4.       To build second line of competent employees and enable them to occupy more responsible positions as situation emerge.
5.       To prepare employees to undertake different jobs in order to enable redeployment and maintain flexibility in workforce so that ever changing environment of market can be met and downturns can be managed without loosing experienced employees.
6.       To provide employees job satisfaction, training enables an employee to use their skill, knowledge and ability to fullest extent and thus experience job satisfaction and gain monetary benefits from enhanced productivity.
7.       To improve knowledge, skills, efficiency of employees to obtain maximum individual development.
8.       To fulfill goals of organization by securing optimum co-operation and contribution from the employees.
Or
(b) What is ‘executive development’? Explain its significance.                                                 4+7=11
Ans: Management or Executive development
All those persons who have authority over others and are responsible for their activities & for the operations of an enterprise are managers. Any activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future requirements is management development.
According to Flippo “executive development includes the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competency in their present job but also capabilities for future managerial tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.” 
In simple words, Executive development or management development is a systematic process of learning and growth by which managerial personnel gain and apply knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights to manage the work in their organization effectively and efficiently.
The characteristics of executive development are as follows:
a)      Executive development is a planned and organized process of learning.
b)      It is an ongoing and never ending exercise.
c)       Executive development is a long term process as managerial skills can not be developed overnight.
d)      It aims at preparing managers for managers.
Importance of Executive Development
Executive development is more future oriented. It is more concerned with education than is employee training. In today’s competitive environment, an organization has to be concerned about the development of supervisors, middle level managers and top-level executive. Executive development is important for the following reasons: -
a)      Technological changes: Now a days the technology is getting change very rapidly. Many advanced and automatic machines have been bringing in present organization. So the managers should have high-quality working knowledge of the use of modern technological machines and equipment. It can be possible by developing the managers for the use of new opened machines. It enables managers to face problems related to technology and institution.
b)      Increase in size of organizations: The size of the organizations is increasing day by day. With the increase in size the complexity is also increasing. So the executives or managers need to be developed to deal with the troubles of the bulky and complex organizations.
c)       Lack of trained managers: There is scarcity of the trained managers and it is quite difficult to recruit the experienced and qualified managers. As a result it is very important to develop the brilliant employees by a disciplined development process.
d)      Social and cultural changes: The social and cultural environment is getting changed rapidly. The managers must have brought up to date the knowledge of the sociology-cultural background to understand the people intentions and actions towards us. Executives need training and education to understand and adjust to changes in socio-economic changes.
e)      Better relation with labours: Given the knowledge era, labour management relations are becoming increasingly complex. In such situation, managers not only need job skills but also behavioural skills in union negotiations, collective bargaining, grievance redressal, etc. These skills are learned through training and development programmes.
f)       Training and development of professional managers: With the recognition that managers are made not born, there has been noticeable shift from owner managed to professionally managed enterprises, even in family business houses like Tata. That is also indicated by the lavish expenditure incurred on executive training by most of the enterprises these days.
As regards the importance of management development, the renowned behavioural scientist Peter Drucker opines that, “an institution that cannot produce its own managers will die. From an overall point of view, the ability of an institution to produce managers is more important than its ability to produce goods efficiently and cheaply”. In short, the importance of executive/ management development in an organisation can best be put as: anything minus management development in an organisation mounts to nothing. 
7. (a) What do you mean by ‘compensation management’? Discuss its importance in a developing country like India. 4+8=12
Ans: Meaning and Definition of Compensation
In layman’s language the word ‘compensation’ means something, such as money, given or received as payment for service. The word compensation may be defined as money received in the performance of work, plus the many kinds of benefits and services that organization provides their employee. It refers to wide range of financial and non-financial rewards to employee for their service rendered to the organization. It is paid in the form of wages, salaries , special allowance and employee benefits such as paid vacation, insurance, maternity leaves, free travel facility , retirement benefits etc.
According to Wendell French,” Compensation is a comprehensive term which includes wages, salaries and all other allowance and benefits.”
Wages are the remuneration paid for skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled operative workforce. Salary is the remuneration of those employees who provides mental labour to the employer such as supervisor, office staff, executive etc wages are paid on daily or hourly basis where as salary is paid on monthly basis.
Significance of Compensation Management
The compensation paid to employees is agency consideration. Each party to agency tries to fix this consideration in its own favor. The employers want to pay as little as possible to keep their costs low. Employees want to get as high as possible. The compensation management tries to strike a balance between these two with following specific objectives:
1. Attracting and Retaining Personnel: From organisation’s point of view, the compensation management aims at attracting and retaining right personnel in the organisation. In the Indian corporate scene, there is no dearth of personnel at operative levels but the problems come at the managerial and technical levels particularly for growing companies. Not only they require persons who are well qualified but they are also retained in the organisation. In the present day context, managerial turnover is a big problem particularly in high knowledge-based organisations.
2. Motivating Personnel: Compensation management aims at motivating personnel for higher productivity. Monetary compensation has its own limitations in motivating people for superior performance. Alfie Kohn (an American author and lecturer who has explored a number of topics in education, parenting, and human behavior.) has gone to the extent of arguing that corporate incentive plans not only fail to work as intended but also undermine the objectives they intend to achieve. He argues that this is due to inadequate psychological assumptions on which reward systems are based. His conclusions are as follows:
a)      Rewards punish people-their use confirms that someone else is in control of the employee.
b)      Rewards rupture relationships-they create competition where teamwork and collaboration are desired.
c)       Rewards ignore reasons-they relieve managers from the urgent need to explore why an employee is effective or ineffective.
d)      Rewards discourage risk taking-employees tend to do exactly what is required to earn the reward, and not any more.
e)      Rewards undermine interest-they distract both manager and the employee from consideration of intrinsic motivation.
f)       Notwithstanding these arguments, compensation management can be designed to motivate people through monetary compensation to some extent.
3. Optimizing Cost of Compensation: Compensation management aims at optimizing cost of compensation by establishing some kind of linkage with performance and compensation. It is not necessary that higher level of wages and salaries will bring higher performance automatically but depends on the kind of linkage that is established between performance and wages and salaries. Compensation management tries to attempt at this.
4. Consistency in Compensation: Compensation management tries to achieve consistency-both internal and external-in compensating employees. Internal consistency involves payment on the basis of criticality of jobs and employees’ performance on jobs. Thus, higher compensation is attached to higher-level jobs. Similarly, higher compensation is attached to higher performers in the same job. Level of jobs within an organisation is determined by job evaluation. External consistency involves similar compensation for a job in all organisations. Though there are many factors involved in the determination of wage and salary structure for a job in an organisation which may result into some kind of disparity in the compensation of a particular job as compared to other organisations, compensation management tries to reduce this disparity.
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(b) Write an explanatory note on ‘Health and Safety Measures’ for employees of a large organization.                                12

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