Tuesday, October 01, 2019

Human Resource Management Solved Question Papers: November' 2018


2018 (November)
COMMERCE (General)
Course: 301 (Human Resource Management)
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions
(NEW COURSE)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 24
Time: 3 hours
1. (a) Answer the following questions very briefly:
1)         Write down any two objectives of Human Resource Management.            1x2=2
Ans: Helping to establish and maintain a harmonious employer/employee relationship, Helping to create and maintain a safe and healthy work environment
2)         Mention two advantages of training.                                           1x2=2
Ans: Increase in efficiency of worker, Reduced supervision
(b) Write True or False:                                           1x4=4
1)         Human Resource Management is a continuous process.                      True
2)         ‘Promotion’ is a source of recruitment.                                                        False
3)         There is no difference between ‘coordination’ and ‘cooperation’.                  False
4)         Planning is a managerial function of Human Resource Management.       True

2. Write short notes on:                                                                   4x4=16
a)         Objectives of Human Resource Planning.
Ans: Objectives of Human Resource Planning The objectives of human resource planning may be summarized as below:
1. Forecasting Human Resources Requirements: HRP is essential to determine the future needs of HR in an organization. In the absence of this plan it is very difficult to provide the right kind of people at the right time.
2. Effective Management of Change: Proper planning is required to cope with changes in the different aspects which affect the organization. These changes need continuation of allocation/reallocation and effective utilization of HR in organization.
3. Realizing the Organizational Goals: In order to meet the expansion and other organizational activities the organizational HR planning is essential.
4. Promoting Employees: HRP gives the feedback in the form of employee data which can be used in decision-making in promotional opportunities to be made available for the organization.
5. Effective Utilization of HR: The data base will provide the useful information in identifying surplus and deficiency in human resources. The objective of HRP is to maintain and improve the organizational capacity to reach its goals by developing appropriate strategies that will result in the maximum contribution of HR.
b)         Job enrichment.
Ans: The concept of job enrichment has been derived from Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation in which he has suggested that job content is one of the basic factors of motivation. If the job is designed in such a manner that it becomes more interesting and challenging to the job performer and provides him opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth, the job itself becomes a source of motivation to the individual.
c)          Inductive training.
Ans: The Induction Training is also called as an orientation programme, wherein the new employees are introduced to the rules and regulation of an organization with the objective of making them accustomed to the working environment, where they will be working. The new hires are generally provided with the following information about the organization:
1.       General information about the daily work routine.
2.       Foundation, history, objectives, mission, vision, products, services, etc. of the organization.
3.       How workers are required to perform their jobs, that will contribute to the organization’s objectives.
4.       Detailed presentation of company’s policies, work rules and employee benefits.
Before designing the induction training programme the firm needs to decide on the following parameters:
a)      Whether the induction training will be Formal or Informal. In the Informal training, the new joinees are put directly on their jobs and are required to adjust themselves to the working environment.
b)      Whereas, in the formal orientation, the new hire undergoes the structured programme designed by the management, that helps them to familiarize with the organization.
c)       Whether the Induction training will be Individual or collective. This means whether the new joinees will be inducted individually or in groups.
d)      Whether the training programme will be Serial or Disjunctive. An induction training is said to be a serial training when an experienced employee inducts the new hire, where he acts as a mentor to him.
e)      Whereas, training is said to be disjunctive when no predecessor is there to induct the new joinee.
f)       Whether the training programme will follow an Investiture or Divestiture strategy. In the Investiture orientation, the formal consent is given to the characteristics that an individual brings to the organization, especially the high-level appointments.
d)         Incentives.
Ans: Incentives
Ans: Incentives are monetary benefits paid to workmen in lieu of their outstanding performance. Incentives vary from individual to individual and from period to period for the same individual. They are universal and are paid in every sector. It works as motivational force to work for their performance as incentive forms the part total remuneration. Incentives when added to salary increase the earning thus increase the standard of living. The advantage of incentive payment are reduced supervision, better utilisation of equipment, reduced scrap, reduced lost time, reduced absenteeism and turnover & increased output.
According to Burack & Smith, “An incentive scheme is a plan or programme to motivate individual or group on performance. An incentive programme is most frequently built on monitory rewards ( incentive pay or monetary bonus ), but may also include a variety of non monetary rewards or prizes.”
Kinds of Incentives
Incentives can be classified under the following categories:
1. Individual and Organizational Incentives
2. Financial and Non-Financial Incentives
3. Positive and Negative Incentives
1) Individual and Organizational Incentives: According to L.G. Magginson, “Individual incentives are the extra compensation paid to an individual for all production over a specified magnitude which stems from his exercise of more than normal skill, effort or concentration when accomplished in a predetermined way involving standard tools, facilities and materials.” Individual performance is measured to calculate incentive where as organizational or group incentive involve cooperation among employees, management and union and purport to accomplish broader objectives such as an organization-wide reduction in labour, material and supply costs, strengthening of employee loyalty to company, harmonious management and decreased turnover and absenteeism
2) Financial and Non-financial Incentives: Individual or group performance can be measured in financial terms. It means that their performance is rewarded in money or cash as it has a great impact on motivation as a symbol of accomplishment. These incentives form visible and tangible rewards provided in recognition of accomplishment. Financial incentives include salary, premium, reward, dividend, income on investment etc. On the other hand, non-financial incentives are that social and psychological attraction which encourages people to do the work efficiently and effectively. Non-financial incentive can be delegation of responsibility, lack of fear, worker’s participation, title or promotion, constructive attitude, security of service, good leadership etc. The incentives that have a monetary and financial benefit are called financial incentives.
3. (a) Discuss the nature and objectives of Human Resource Management.            4+10=14
Ans: Nature/Characteristics of HRM: Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:
1)      Universal in nature: It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises. It is universal and affects all levels of management.
2)      It is a management Discipline: HRM Involves the Application of Management Functions and Principles. The functions and principles are applied to acquiring, developing, maintaining and providing remuneration to employees in organization.
3)      Continuous: Human resource management is a continuous process. It cannot be practised one hour or one day or one week. It requires constant and continuous awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations.
4)      Directed towards achievement of objectives: It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees.
5)      Development oriented: It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages employees to give their best to the organization. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
6)      Multi-disciplinary activity: HRM Functions are not confined to Business Establishments Only but applicable to non business organizations such as education, health care, recreation and like.
7)      Integration: HRM tries to build and maintain cordial relation between people working at different levels in the organisation. Decisions on different aspects of employees must be consistent with other human resource (HR) decisions.
8)      Decisions Made Influence the Effectiveness of an Organization: Effectiveness of an organization will result in betterment of services to customers in the form of high quality products supplied at reasonable costs.
Objectives of HRM
The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of competent and willing workforce to an organization. The specific objectives include the following:
1) Human capital : Human resource management assist the organization in obtaining the right number and types of employees to fulfill its strategic and operational goals.
2) Developing organizational climate: It helps in creating a climate in which employees are encouraged to develop and utilize their skills to the fullest and to employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiently.
3) Helping to maintain performance standards and increase productivity through effective job design; providing adequate orientation, training and development; providing performance-related feedback; and ensuring effective two-way communication.
4) Helping to establish and maintain a harmonious employer/employee relationship
5) Helping to create and maintain a safe and healthy work environment
6) Developing programs to meet the economic, psychological, and social needs of the employees and helping the organization to retain the productive employees
7) Ensuring that the organization is in compliance with provincial/territorial and federal laws affecting the workplace (such as human rights, employment equity, occupational health and safety, employment standards, and labour relations legislation). To help the organization to reach its goals
8) To provide organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees
9) To increase the employees satisfaction and self-actualization
10) To develop and maintain the quality of work life
11) To communicate HR policies to all employees.
12) To help maintain ethical polices and behavior.
The above stated HRM objectives can be summarized under four specific objectives: societal, organizational, and functional and personnel.
1)      Societal Objectives: seek to ensure that the organization becomes socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. The failure of the organizations to use their resources for the society’s benefit in ethical ways may lead to restriction.
2)      Organizational Objectives: it recognizes the role of HRM in bringing about organizational effectiveness. It makes sure that HRM is not a standalone department, but rather a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. The HR department exists to serve the rest of the organization.
3)      Functional Objectives: is to maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs. Human resources are to be adjusted to suit the organization’s demands. The department’s value should not become too expensive at the cost of the organization it serves.
4)      Personnel Objectives: it is to assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least as far as these goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of employees must be met if they are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise employee performance and satisfaction may decline giving rise to employee turnover.
Or
(b) Discuss the evolution and development of Human Resource Management in India.            14
Ans: Evolution and Growth of Human Resource management
People – The Principal Resource: The principal resource of any organization is people and managing people is the most important and challenging aspect of an organization. What we call human resource management today, dates back to 1800 B.C., which is evident from the inscriptions of Babylonian code of Hammurabi and Kautilya’s Arthasashtra, which explains in detail the importance of selection, incentives, performance evaluation, quality of a manager and wage rates. So, we understand that the concept of managing people has existed even in the previous eras through ancient literature and philosophy. India, China and Greece have been the origin points of human resource management concepts.

Evolution of Human Resource Management
Industrial Revolution:
Till, 1930’s, there was no such department called “personnel management” that was considered necessary to cater to the needs and welfare of the labor society. The factory manager was acting as a link between the workers and the management, and most of the time he had to comply with the rules of the management to satisfy them, even if it were against the welfare of the workers. Also proper attention was not given to areas like, worker safety, security and living conditions. Industrial revolution saw mass exodus of workers to urban areas in search of jobs.
Need for employment Department:
Application of science and technology in production made the rich owners even richer; the poor workers were not paid adequately and their life became miserable. Since the owners lost direct contact with the employees, managers came into the picture to take over control of production and administration. Machines ruled the industry and importance of labor got reduced. This condition existed for sometime until the advent of new and improved management concepts by people like F.W.Taylor who is considered to be the father of scientific management and B.F.Goodrich who was instrumental in forming the “employment department” which can be considered the fore runner of present human resource department.
Introduction of Scientific Management:
Scientific methods were introduced to make the workers perform the job with ease and perfection. It also saved enormous time and reduced the monotony of work. Job-designs, job-specification, training and development and human relations were given due importance and the owners slowly started realizing the importance of labor. Through 1940’s to 1970’s behavioral approach was applied to professional management, the major architects being Abraham Maslow, Herzberg and Douglas McGregor. This approach suggested managers to modify their leadership styles to suit the type of followers and motivate the workers.
Consequences of World War I and II:
World War I and II also had profound influence on Human resource development. The concepts of role playing, improved training methods, supervision and group discussions came into the fray. The advent of labor unions also established a clear pathway for the workers to claim their rights, ably supported by the labor laws enacted by various governments. International labor organization was formed in 1919 which created sensation in the worker community all over the world. All said and done, empowerment of workers has been achieved only in developed nations where “job security” is no more a great concern because job opportunities are more. But in unorganized and small sectors, employers continue to exploit workers because “supply” is more than “demand”. The responsibility to develop and empower the employees solely lies on the shoulders of human resource department. It should try to address the problems of workers to the management and amicably settle issues relating to wages, welfare, safety and security.

4. (a) What do you mean by Human Resource Planning? Discuss the importance of Human Resource Planning in the management of a large company.                              4+10=14
Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.
According to Gordon Mc Beath, “HRP is concerned with two things: Planning of manpower requirements and Planning of Manpower supplies”.
According to Beach, “HRP is a process of determining and assuming that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which meet the needs of the enterprise and which provides satisfaction for the individuals involved”
Simply HRP can be understood as the process of forecasting an organization’s future demands for and supply of the right type of people in the right number. In other words HRP is the process of determining manpower needs and formulating plans to meet these needs.
Significance or need or Importance of Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning aims at fulfilling the objectives of manpower requirement. It helps to mobilize the recruited resources for the productive activities. The human resource planning is and important process aiming to link business strategy and its operation. The importances of human resource planning are as follows:
1. Future Personnel Needs: Human resource planning is significant because it helps to determine the future personnel needs of the organization. If an organization is facing the problem of either surplus or deficiency in staff strength, then it is the result of the absence of effecting HR planning. All public sector enterprises find themselves overstaffed now as they never had any planning for personnel requirement and went of recruitment spree till late 1980’s. The problem of excess staff has become such a prominent problem that many private sector units are resorting to VRS ‘voluntary retirement scheme’. The excess of labor problem would have been there if the organization had good HRP system. Effective HRP system will also enable the organization to have good succession planning.
2. Part of Strategic Planning: HRP has become an integral part of strategic planning of strategic planning. HRP provides inputs in strategy formulation process in terms of deciding whether the organization has got the right kind of human resources to carry out the given strategy. HRP is also necessary during the implementation stage in the form of deciding to make resource allocation decisions related to organization structure, process and human resources. In some organizations HRP play as significant role as strategic planning and HR issues are perceived as inherent in business management.
3. Creating Highly Talented Personnel: Even though India has a great pool of educated unemployed, it is the discretion of HR manager that will enable the company to recruit the right person with right skills to the organization. Even the existing staff hope the job so frequently that organization face frequent shortage of manpower. Manpower planning in the form of skill development is required to help the organization in dealing with this problem of skilled manpower shortage
4. International Strategies: An international expansion strategy of an organization is facilitated to a great extent by HR planning. The HR department’s ability to fill key jobs with foreign nationals and reassignment of employees from within or across national borders is a major challenge that is being faced by international business. With the growing trend towards global operation, the need for HRP will as well will be the need to integrate HRP more closely with the organizations strategic plans. Without effective HRP and subsequent attention to employee recruitment, selection, placement, development, and career planning, the growing competition for foreign executives may lead to expensive and strategically descriptive turnover among key decision makers.
5. Foundation for Personnel Functions: HRP provides essential information for designing and implementing personnel functions, such as recruitment, selection, training and development, personnel movement like transfers, promotions and layoffs.
6. Increasing Investments in Human Resources: Organizations are making increasing investments in human resource development compelling the increased need for HRP. Organizations are realizing that human assets can increase in value more than the physical assets. An employee who gradually develops his/ her skills and abilities become a valuable asset for the organization. Organizations can make investments in its personnel either through direct training or job assignment and the rupee value of such a trained, flexible, motivated productive workforce is difficult to determine. Top officials have started acknowledging that quality of work force is responsible for both short term and long term performance of the organization.
7. Resistance to Change: Employees are always reluctant whenever they hear about change and even about job rotation. Organizations cannot shift one employee from one department to another without any specific planning. Even for carrying out job rotation (shifting one employee from one department to another) there is a need to plan well ahead and match the skills required and existing skills of the employees.
8. Uniting the Viewpoint of Line and Staff Managers: HRP helps to unite the viewpoints of line and staff managers. Though HRP is initiated and executed by the corporate staff, it requires the input and cooperation of all managers within an organization. Each department manager knows about the issues faced by his department more than anyone else. So communication between HR staff and line managers is essential for the success of HR Planning and development.
9. Succession Planning: Human Resource Planning prepares people for future challenges. The ‘stars’ are picked up, trained, assessed and assisted continuously so that when the time comes such trained employees can quickly take the responsibilities and position of their boss or seniors as and when situation arrives.
10. Other Benefits: (a) HRP helps in judging the effectiveness of manpower policies and programmes of management. (b) It develops awareness on effective utilization of human resources for the overall development of organization. (c) It facilitates selection and training of employees with adequate knowledge, experience and aptitudes so as to carry on and achieve the organizational objectives (d) HRP encourages the company to review and modify its human resource policies and practices and to examine the way of utilizing the human resources for better utilization.
Or
(b) What is job analysis? Explain about the process of job analysis.                       4+10=14
Ans: Meaning and Definition Job analysis:
The process of studying and collecting informations relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job is called job analysis. The immediate product of this analysis are job description and job specification. It analyze the content & characteristics of the job and requirements/ qualifications needed to perform those jobs.
According to Michael L. Jucius, “Job analysis refers to the process of studying the operations, duties and organizational aspects of jobs in order to derive specifications or as they called by some, job descriptions.”
According to DeCenzo and P. Robbins, “A job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job.”
Thus, job analysis involves the process of identifying the nature of a job (job description) and the qualities of the likely job holder (job specification).
Job description: Job description is an organized, factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. It should tell what is to be done, how it is done, and why. It is a standard of function. It defines the authorized content of the job. It contains : job title, location, job summary, duties, machine, tools and equipments, materials used, supervision given or received, working conditions, hazards etc.
Steps in Job Analysis
The various steps of job analysis are given below:
1.       Determine the Use of the Job Analysis Information: Start by identifying the use to which the information will be put, since this will determine the type of data you collect and the technique you use to collect them.
2.       Collection of Background Information: According to Terry, “The make-up of a job, its relation to other jobs, and its requirements for competent performance are essential information needed for a job evaluation. This information can be had by reviewing available background information.
3.       Selection of Jobs for Analysis: To do job analysis is a costly and time consuming process. It is hence, necessary to select a representative sample of jobs for purposes of analysis. Priorities of various jobs can also be determined. A job may be selected because it has undergone undocumented changes in job content. The request for analysis of a job may originate with the employee, supervisor, or a manager.
4.       When the employee requests an analysis it is usually because new job demands have not been reflected in changes in wages. Employee’s salaries are, in part, based upon the nature of the work that they perform. Some organizations establish a time cycle for the analysis of each job. For example: A job analysis may be required for all jobs every three years. New jobs must also be subjected to analysis.
5.       Collection of Job Analysis Data: Job data on features of the job, requited employee qualification and requirements, should be collected either form the employees who actually perform a job; or from other employees (such as foremen or supervisors) who watch the workers doing a job and there by acquire knowledge about it; or from the outside persons, known as the trade job analysis who are appointed to watch employees performing a job. The duties of such a trade job analyst are (i) to outline the complete scope of a job and to consider all the physical and mental activities involved in determining what the worker does.; (ii) find out why a worker does a job; and for this purpose he studies why each task is essential for the overall result; and (iii) the skill factor which may be needed in the worker to differentiate between jobs and establish the extent of the difficulty of any job.
6.       Processing the Information: Once job analysis information has been collected, the next step is to place it in a form that will make it useful to those charged with the various personnel functions. Several issues arise with respect to this. First, how much detail is needed? Second, can the job analysis information be expressed in quantitative terms? These must be considered properly.
7.       Preparing Job Descriptions and Job Classifications: Job information which has been collected must be processed to prepare the job description form. It is a statement showing full details of the activities of the job. Separate job description forms may be used for various activities in the job and may be compiled later on. The job analysis is made with the help of these description forms. These forms may be used as reference for the future.
8.       Developing Job Specifications: Job specifications are also prepared on the basis of information collected. It is a statement of minimum acceptable qualities of the person to be placed on the job. It specifies the standard by which the qualities of the person are measured. Job analyst prepares such statement taking into consideration the skills required in performing the job properly. Such statement is used in selecting a person matching with the job.

5. (a) Explain the meaning of ‘recruitment’ and ‘selection’. Distinguish between recruitment and selection.         2+2+10=14
Ans: Meaning  and definition of Recruitment
Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. When more persons apply for job then there will be a scope for recruiting better persons. The job-seekers too on the other hand, are in search of organizations offering them employment. Recruitment is a linkage activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.
Definitions: Flippo – “Recruitment is the process of searching prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for the jobs in the organization”
Selection
Human resource selection is the process of choosing qualified individuals who are available to fill positions in an organization. In the ideal personnel situation, selection involves choosing the best applicant to fill a position. Selection is the process of choosing people by obtaining and assessing information about the applicants with a view to matching these with the job requirements. It involves a careful screening and testing of candidates who have put in their applications for any job in the enterprise. It is the process of choosing the most suitable persons out of all the applicants. The purpose of selection is to pick up the right person for every job.
Difference between Recruitment and Selection
Difference between recruitment and selection has been described by Flippo as, “Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation. It is often termed positive as is stimulates people to apply for jobs, selection on the other hand tends to be negative because it rejects a good number of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.” Recruitment and selection differs in following manner:
Basis
Recruitment
Selection
Meaning
It is the process of searching and Motivating candidates to apply for Job.
It is that process of staffing which rejects the unsuitable candidates and choose the suitable candidates.
Purpose
The basic purpose is to create a large pool of applicants for the jobs.
The basic purpose is to eliminate as many candidates as possible until the most suitable candidates get finalized.
Scope
Recruitment is restricted to the extent of receipt of application.
Selection includes sorting of the candidates.
Positive /Negative process
Recruitment is a positive process. As more and more applicant are sought to be attracted.
Selection is a negative process as more applicants are rejected than selected.
Criteria
It gives freedom to applicants. Any one is free to apply.
It gives very little freedom to applicants. Applicants must meet the selection criteria.
Outcomes
The outcome of recruitment is application pool which becomes input for
selection process.
The outcome of selection process is in the form of finalising candidates who will be
offered jobs.
Or
(b) Critically discuss the various sources of recruitment.                                    14
Ans: Sources of Recruitment:
The finding out where suitable candidates are available and informing them about the openings in the organization is the most important aspect of recruitment process. The candidates may be available inside the organization as well outsider it. Recruitment sources can be described as: internal and external sources.
A. Internal Sources: Internal source is one of the important sources of recruitment the employees already working in the organization may be more suitable for higher jobs than those recruited from outside. The present employees may help in the recruitment of new persons also internal sources are discussed as follows:
1.       Transfers: Transfer involves shifting of persons from present jobs to other similar places. These don't involve any change in rank, responsibility and prestige. The numbers of persons don't increase with transfer but vacant posts may be attended to.
2.       Promotions: Promotions refers to shifting of persons to positions carrying better prestige, higher responsibilities and more salaries. The higher positions falling vacant may be filled up from within the organization. A promotion doesn't increase the number of persons in the organization. A person going to get a higher position will vacate his present position. Promotion avenues motivate employees to improve their performance so that they get promotions to higher position.
3.       Present Employees: The present employees of an enterprise may be informed about likely vacant position. The employees recommend their relations or persons intimately known to them. Management is relieved of botheration for looking out prospective candidates. The persons recommended by the employees will be suitable for the job because they know the needs & requirement of various positions. The existing employees take full responsibility for those recommended by them and try to ensure their proper behavior and performance. This method of recruiting employees is suitable for lower position only. It may create nepotism and favoritism. The workers may be employees on the basis of their recommendations and not suitability.
Merits of Internal Sources: The following are the merits of internal sources of recruitment:
a)      It creates a sense of security among employees when they are assured that they would be preferred in filling up vacancies.
b)      It improves the morale of employees, for they are assured of the fact that they would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies occur.
c)       It promotes loyalty and commitment among employees due to sense of job security and opportunities for advancement.
d)      The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently employed than outside candidates.
e)      This is because the company maintains a record of the progress, experience and service of its employees.
f)       Time and costs of training will be low because employees remain familiar with the organisation and its policies.
g)      Relations with trade unions remain good. Labour turnover is reduced.
h)      As the persons in the employment of the company are fully aware of, and well acquainted wit, its policies and know its operating procedures, they require little training, and the chances are that they would stay longer in the employment of the organisation than a new outsider would.
i)        It encourages self-development among the employees. It encourages good individuals who are ambitious.
j)        It encourages stability from continuity of employment.
k)      It can also act as a training device for developing middle and top-level managers.
Demerits of Internal Sources: Internal sources of recruitment have certain disadvantages as follows:
1)      Recruitment of internals leads to inbreeding and discourages new blood with new ideas from entering into the organization.
2)      It is possible that internal sources ultimately dry up and hence it may be difficult to find suitable persons from within the organization.
3)      In case of certain jobs such as advertising, style, designing, basic research etc recruitment from within is not desirable.
4)      As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play an important role in the selection of personnel.
5)      Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no innovations worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs which require original thinking, this practice is not followed.
6)      Generally for middle level managers internal source is rarely used, however for promoting blue collar workers to white collar jobs internal source is more desirable.
B. External Sources: Every enterprise has to use external sources for recruitment to higher positions when existing employees are not suitable. More person are needed when expansion are undertaken. External methods are discussed as follows.
Advertisement: Advertisement is the best method of recruiting persons for higher and experienced jobs. The advertisements are given in local or national press, trade or professional journals. The requirements of jobs are given in the advertisement. The prospective candidates evaluate themselves against the requirement of jobs before sending their applications. Management gets a wider range of candidates for selection. The flood of applications may create difficulties in the process.
Employment Exchanges: Employment Exchanges run by the government are also a good source of recruitment. Unemployed persons get themselves registered with these exchanges. The vacancies may be notified with the exchanges, whenever there is a need. The exchange supplies a list of candidates fulfilling required qualification. Exchanges are a suitable source of recruitment for filling unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled and operative posts.
Education Institutions: The jobs in trade and industry are becoming technical and complex. These jobs require certain amount of educational and technical qualifications. The employers maintain a close liaison with universities and technical institutions. The students are spotted during the course of their studies. Junior level, executives or managerial may be recruited in this way.
Unsolicited Applicants: Persons in search of employment may contact employers through telephone, by post or in person. Generally, employers with good reputation get unsolicited applications. If an opening is there or is likely to be there then these persons are considered for such jobs. Personnel department may maintain a record of unsolicited applications. When jobs suitable for these persons are available these persons are available these are considered for employment.
Casual Callers: Management may appoint persons who casually call on them for meeting short-term demands. This will avoid following a regular procedure of selection. These persons are appointed for short periods only. They need not be paid retrenchment or layoff allowance. This method of recruitment is economical because management does not incur a liability in pensions, insurance and fringe benefits.
Labour Contractors: It is quite common to engage contractors for the supply of labour. When workers are required for short period and are hired without going through the full procedure of selection etc.., contractors maintain regular contracts with works at their places and also bring them to the cities at their own expense. The persons hired under this system are generally unskilled workers.
Labour Unions: Labour unions are one of the sources of external recruitment. The job seekers are required to register with labour unions, & the labour unions are require to supply the names of persons for filing the vacancies. This method may encourage good co-operation between business firms and labour unions, active participation of persons in labour unions, the development of leadership qualities in workers, etc.,
Consulting Agencies: Consulting agencies are one of the important sources of recruitment, especially for big companies. Consulting agencies are specialised agencies which recruit people on behalf of their clients. They invite application for jobs specified by their clients from job seekers through advertisements, screen the application, interview the candidates and select the suitable candidate. They do these services for their clients for some Fees.
Educational Institutions: Universities, Colleges & Management institute are also one of the sources of recruitment of personnel, particularly for the posts of Scientists, Engineers & Management specialist. They have there own employment bureaus to help business organizations in recruiting the students for various jobs.
Present Employees: Present Employees are also one of the sources of recruitment of personnel. The present employees of the concern are asked by the management to recommend suitable persons for employment in the concern.
6. (a) Describe in detail the various steps in a training programme.                        14
Ans: Steps in Training process
The steps of Training Process are as under:
1. Organizational Objectives and Strategies: The first step in the training process is an organization in the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we what to be in the future? Its only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strength and weakness of its human resources.
2. Needs Assessment: Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenge to be met through training and development. Needs assessment occurs at two levels i.e. group level and individual level, an individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short or standards that is when there is performance deficiency. Inadequate in performance may be due to lack of skills or knowledge or any other problem
3. Training and Development Objectives: Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established. Without clearly-set goals, it is not possible to design a training and development programme and after it has been implemented, there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifying and measurable. This is easy where skilled training is involved.
4. Conducting Training Activities: Where is the training going to be conducted and how?
Ø  At the job itself.
Ø  On site but not the job for example in a training room in the company.
Ø  Off site such as a university, college classroom hotel, etc.
5.       Designing training and development program: Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques? What is the level of training? What are the principles of learning?  Where to conduct the program?
6.       Implementation of the training programme: Program implementation involves actions on the following lines :
Ø  Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.
Ø  Scheduling the training programme.
Ø  Conducting the programme.
Ø  Monitoring the progress of the trainees.
7.       Evaluation of the Results: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of the results. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development, how far the programme has been useful must be judge/determined. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. In the practice, however organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation.
Or
(b) Explain the different methods which are generally used for executive development.            14
Ans: Methods of training for managers/methods of managerial development/executive development:
A) On the job method: On the job method refers to training given to personnel inside the company. There are different methods of on the job training.
1. Job rotation: This method enables the company to train managerial personnel in departmental work. They are taught everything about the department. Starting from the lowest level job in the department to the highest level job. This helps when the person takes over as a manager and is required to check whether his juniors are doing the job properly or not. Every minute detail is studied.
2. Planned progression: In this method juniors are assigned a certain job of their senior in addition to their own job. The method allows the employee to slowly learn the job of his senior so that when he is promoted to his senior job it becomes very easy for him to adjust to the new situation. It also provides a chance to learn higher level jobs.
3. Coaching and counseling: Coaching refers to actually teaching a job to a junior. The senior person who is the coach actually teaches his junior regarding how the work must be handled and how decisions must be taken, the different techniques that can be used on the job, how to handle pressure. There is active participation from the senior.
Counseling refers to advising the junior employee as and when he faces problems. The counselor superior plays an advisory role and does not actively teach employees.
4. Under study: In this method of training a junior is deputed to work under a senior. He takes orders from the senior, observes the senior, attends meetings with him, learns about decision making and handling of day to day problems. The method is used when the senior is on the verge of retirement and the job will be taken over by the junior.
5. Junior board: In this method a group of junior level managers are identified and they work together in a group called junior board. They function just like the board of directors. They identify certain problem, they have to study the problem and provide suggestions. This method improves team work and decision making ability. It gives an idea about the intensity of problem faced by the company. Only promising and capable junior level managers are selected for this method.
B) Off the job training method: Off the job training refers to method of training given outside the company. The different methods adopted here are:
1. Classroom method: The classroom method is used when a group of managers have to be trained in theoretical aspects. The training involves using lectures, audio visuals, case study, role play method, group discussions etc. The method is interactive and provides very good results.
2. Simulation: Simulation involves creating atmosphere which is very similar to the original work environment. The method helps to train manager handling stress, taking immediate decisions, handling pressure on the jobs etc. An actual feel of the real job environment is given here.
3. Business games: This method involves providing a market situation to the trainee manager and asking him to provide solutions. If there are many people to be trained they can be divided into groups and each group becomes a separate team and play against each other.
4. Committee: A committee refers to a group of people who are officially appointed to look into a problem and provide solution. Trainee managers are put in the committee to identify how they study a problem and what they learn from it.
5. Conference: Conferences are conducted by various companies to have elaborate discussions on specific topics. The company which organizes the conference invites trainee manager and calls for experts in different fields to give presentation or lecture. The trainee manager can ask their doubts to these experts and understand how problems can be solved on the job.
6. Readings: This method involves encouraging the trainee manager to increase his reading related to his subject and then ask him to make a presentation on what he has learned. Information can be collected by trainee manager from books, magazines and internet etc.
7. In basket training: In this method the training is given to the manager to handle files coming in and to finish his work and take decisions within a specified time limit. The trainee manager is taught how to prioritize his work, the activities which are important for his job and how to take decisions within limited time limit.
(OLD COURSE)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
1. (a) Answer the following questions very briefly:
1.    Mention two points of distinction between Human Resource Management and Personnel Management. 2
Ans: Difference between HRM and Personnel Management
a)      Personnel management is a traditional approach of managing people in the organization. Human resource management is a modern approach of managing people and their strengths in the organization.
b)      Personnel management focuses on personnel administration, employee welfare and labor relation. Human resource management focuses on acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of human resources in the organization.
c)       Personnel management assumes people as a input for achieving desired output. Human resource management assumes people as an important and valuable resource for achieving desired output.
2.       Write down two functions of personnel manager.                    2
Ans: Functions of personnel manager: Counsellor, link between the employees and management, welfare role, research role.
(b) Write True or False:                                                                                                 1x4=4
1)   A good human resource development practice motivates the organizational members to do an outstanding work.                    True
2)   Employee selection is the process of attracting capable applicants for employment.  False, recruitment
3)   There is no difference between career planning and career counseling.           False
4)   Compensation management is a continuous process.               True
2. Write short notes on any four of the following:                                4x4=16
a)   Scope of HRM.
b)   Scientific selection of employees.
c)    Job analysis.
d)   Career development.
e)   External sources of recruitment.
3. (a) Discuss the functions of Human Resource Management.                   11
Or
(b) Discuss in brief the development of Human Resource Management in India.            11
4. (a) What do you mean by Human Resource Planning? Explain the different steps in Human Resource Planning.  4+7=11
Or
(b) What is meant by ‘job analysis’? Describe the importance of job analysis in an organization. 4+7=11
5. (a) Describe the internal sources of recruitment.                             11
Or
(b) Distinguish between ‘recruitment’ and ‘selection’.                              11
6. (a) Define training. Describe the importance of training.                         4+7=11
Or
(b) What is ‘executive development’? Explain its significance.               4+7=11
7. (a) What do you mean by ‘compensation management’? Discuss its importance in a developing country like India. 4+8=12
Or
(b) Write an explanatory note on ‘health and safety measures’ for employees of a large organization.    12

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