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Thursday, November 01, 2018

Human Resource Management Solved Question Papers: November' 2017


2017 (May)
COMMERCE (Speciality)
Course: 403 (Human Resource Management)
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions
Time: 3 hours
(NEW COURSE)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 24
1. State whether the following statements are True or False:                                     1x8=8

a)      Human Resource Management is a proactive function.          True
b)      Strike is a collective step taken by workers.                                                 True
c)       Job evaluation begins with job analysis.                                         True
d)      Compensation management is a continuous process.             True      
e)      A good incentive plan should be conductive to welfare.         True
f)       Career plan has not role in employees’ motivation.                  True
g)      Questionnaire is one of the techniques of job analysis.          True
h)      Job-instruction training is an example of on-the-job training.              True
2. Write short notes on any four of the following:                                                           4x4=16
a) Objectives of Human Resource Planning
Ans:  Objectives of Human Resource Planning
1. To ensure optimum utilization of human resources currently available in the organization.
2. To assess or forecast the future skill requirement of the organization.
3. To provide control measures to ensure that necessary resources are available as and when required.
4. A series of specified reasons are there that attaches importance to manpower planning and forecasting exercises. They are elaborated below:
Ø  To link manpower planning with the organizational planning
Ø  To determine recruitment levels.
Ø  To anticipate redundancies.
Ø  To determine optimum training levels.
Ø  To provide a basis for management development programs.
Ø  To cost the manpower.
Ø  To assist productivity bargaining.
Ø  To assess future accommodation requirement.
Ø  To study the cost of overheads and value of service functions.
Ø  To decide whether certain activity needs to be subcontracted, etc.
b) Induction
Ans: Induction or Orientation is a process through which a new employee is introduced to the organisation. It is the process wherein an employee is made to feel comfortable and at home in the organisation. The new employee is handed over a rulebook, company booklets, policy manuals, progress reports and documents containing company information which are informational in nature. It is responsibility of the human resource department to execute the orientation programme. Orientation is one component of the new employee socialization process. Socialization is the ongoing process of instilling in all new employees prevailing attitudes, standards, values, patterns of behaviour that are expected by the organisation and its departments.
In the words of John M. Ivancevich, “Orientation orients, directs, and guides employees to understand the work, firm, colleagues, and mission. It introduces new employees to the organisation, and to his new tasks, managers, and work groups.”
According to John Bernardin, “Orientation is a term used for the organizationally sponsored, formalized activities associated with an employee’s socialisation into the organisation.”
Billimoria has defined orientation as, “Induction (orientation) is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, and purposes of the organisation.”
c) Job analysis
Ans: The process of studying and collecting informations relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job is called job analysis. The immediate product of this analysis are job description and job specification. It analyze the content & characteristics of the job and requirements/ qualifications needed to perform those jobs.
According to Michael L. Jucius, “Job analysis refers to the process of studying the operations, duties and organizational aspects of jobs in order to derive specifications or as they called by some, job descriptions.”
According to DeCenzo and P. Robbins, “A job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job.”
Thus, job analysis involves the process of identifying the nature of a job (job description) and the qualities of the likely job holder (job specification).
d) Personality test
Ans: Personality Tests: Personality of an employee affects his performance. So, at the time of selection, personality tests of employees are conducted. The main aim of personality test is to determine personality traits of the candidate such as cooperativeness, emotional balance etc. These seek to assess an individual’s motivation, adjustment to the stresses of everyday life, capacity for interpersonal relations and self-image.
e) Areas of training
Ans: Methods of determining training needs / Areas of Training
1. Management audit method:
a) Environmental assessment- environmental (political-legal, economic, socio-cultural, technological) changes are identified to determine training needs.
b) Objectives, strategies and structure change- training needs are identified to manage such changes.
2. Task analysis method: Collection and analysis of task related information- performance standards for each task are set- details are found about how tasks are done- training needs are identified for effective task performance. Job description, job specification, job performance standard
3. Performance analysis method
a) Organizational performance method- specifies desired performance standard. Overall performance such as- goal achievement, production performance, quality control, sales performance,cost, absenteeism, labour turnover,accident rates etc. It determines the overall training needs.
b) Employee performance analysis- identifies actual performance on the current job. Performance deficiencies and problem faced by the employees are identified to determine training needs through- employees performance appraisal reviews, career planning discussion, exit interview, performance test etc.
4. Supervisory recommendation method: In this method supervisor identify gap in knowledge and skills and recommend needed training for the employees.
5. Training need survey method: In this method direct questioning is used to gather opinion about training needs through individual survey (each employee), group survey (group of present employees, former employees and supervisors). The result of survey becomes training needs. Competency survey- experts are asked to give opinion on desired competencies to perform the job effectively. This desired competencies determines training needs.
f) Functions of HR Manager.
Ans: Personnel management which is know as human resource management has adapted itself to the changing work environment, however these changes are still taking place and will continue in the future therefore the challenges before the HR manager are:
1.       Retention of the employees: One of the most important challenge the HR manager faces is retention of labour force. Many companies have a very high rate of labour turnover therefore HR manager are required to take some action to reduce the turnover
2.       Multicultural work force: With the number of multi cultural companies are increasing operations in different nations. The work force consists of people from different cultures. Dealing with each of the needs which are different the challenge before the HR manager is integration of multicultural labour work force.
3.       Women in the work force: The number of women who have joined the work force has drastically increased over a few years. Women employees face totally different problems. They also have responsibility towards the family. The organization needs to consider this aspect also. The challenge before the HR manager lies in creating gender sensitivity and in providing a good working environment to the women employees.
4.       Handicapped employees: This section of the population normally faces a lot of problems on the job, very few organization have jobs and facilities specially designed for handicapped workers. Therefore the challenge before the HR manager lies in creating atmosphere suitable for such employees and encouraging them to work better.
3. (a) Discuss the nature of Human Resource Management. How does it differ from Personnel Management? 7+7=14
Ans: Human Resource Management (HRM) can be defined as the set of programs, functions, and activities designed and performed in order to maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness. It is a management function that helps organization in recruiting, selecting, training, developing and managing its members. HRM is concern with the management of people in the organization from Recruitment to Retirement.
Nature/Characteristics of HRM
Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:
1.       It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.
2.       Its focus is on results rather than on rules.
3.       It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.
4.       It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.
5.       It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
6.       It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
7.       It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees.
8.       It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization.
Difference Between Personnel Management And Human Resource Management
Human resource management is the new version of personnel management. There is no any watertight difference between human resource management and personnel management. However, there are some differences in the following matters.
1.       Personnel management is a traditional approach of managing people in the organization. Human resource management is a modern approach of managing people and their strengths in the organization.
2.       Personnel management focuses on personnel administration, employee welfare and labor relation. Human resource management focuses on acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of human resources in the organization.
3.       Personnel management assumes people as a input for achieving desired output. Human resource management assumes people as an important and valuable resource for achieving desired output.
4.       Under personnel management, personnel function is undertaken for employee's satisfaction. Under human resource management, administrative function is undertaken for goal achievement.
5.       Under personnel management, job design is done on the basis of division of labor. Under human resource management, job design function is done on the basis of group work/team work.
6.       Under personnel management, employees are provided with less training and development opportunities. Under human resource management, employees are provided with more training and development opportunities.
7.       In personnel management, decisions are made by the top management as per the rules and regulation of the organization. In human resource management, decisions are made collectively after considering employee's participation, authority, decentralization, competitive environment etc. 
8.       Personnel management focuses on increased production and satisfied employees. Human resource management focuses on effectiveness, culture, productivity and employee's participation.
9.       Personnel management is concerned with personnel manager. Human resource management is concerned with all level of managers from top to bottom.
10.   Personnel management is a routine function. Human resource management is a strategic function.
Or
(b) Give a suitable definition of Human Resource Management. Discuss its scope and objects.                                2+12=14
Ans: Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Management (HRM)
Human Resource Management (HRM) can be defined as the set of programs, functions, and activities designed and performed in order to maximize both employee as well as organizational effectiveness. It is a management function that helps organization in recruiting, selecting, training, developing and managing its members. HRM is concern with the management of people in the organization from Recruitment to Retirement.
According to Flippo, “human resource management is the   planning , organizing , directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance, and separation of human resource to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are accomplished.”
Objectives of HRM
The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of competent and willing workforce to an organization. The specific objectives include the following:
1)      Societal Objectives: seek to ensure that the organization becomes socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. The failure of the organizations to use their resources for the society’s benefit in ethical ways may lead to restriction.
2)      Organizational Objectives: it recognizes the role of HRM in bringing about organizational effectiveness. It makes sure that HRM is not a standalone department, but rather a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. The HR department exists to serve the rest of the organization.
3)      Functional Objectives: is to maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs. Human resources are to be adjusted to suit the organization’s demands. The department’s value should not become too expensive at the cost of the organization it serves.
4)      Personnel Objectives: it is to assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least as far as these goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of employees must be met if they are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise employee performance and satisfaction may decline giving rise to employee turnover.
Scope of HRM
The scope of HRM refers to all the activities that come under the banner of HRM. These activities are as follows:
1.       Human resources planning: Human resource planning or HRP refers to a process by which the company to identify the number of jobs vacant, whether the company has excess staff or shortage of staff and to deal with this excess or shortage.
2.       Job analysis design: Another important area of HRM is job analysis. Job analysis gives a detailed explanation about each and every job in the company. Based on this job analysis the company prepares advertisements.
3.       Recruitment and selection: Based on information collected from job analysis the company prepares advertisements and publishes them in the news papers. This is recruitment. A number of applications are received after the advertisement is published, interviews are conducted and the right employee is selected thus recruitment and selection are yet another important area of HRM.
4.       Orientation and induction: Once the employees have been selected an induction or orientation program is conducted. This is another important area of HRM. The employees are informed about the background of the company, explain about the organizational culture and values and work ethics and introduce to the other employees.
5.       Training and development: Every employee goes under training program which helps him to put up a better performance on the job. Training program is also conducted for existing staff that have a lot of experience. This is called refresher training. Training and development is one area were the company spends a huge amount.
6.       Performance appraisal: Once the employee has put in around 1 year of service, performance appraisal is conducted that is the HR department checks the performance of the employee. Based on these appraisal future promotions, incentives, increments in salary are decided.
7.       Compensation planning and remuneration: There are various rules regarding compensation and other benefits. It is the job of the HR department to look into remuneration and compensation planning.
8.       Motivation, welfare, health and safety: Motivation becomes important to sustain the number of employees in the company. It is the job of the HR department to look into the different methods of motivation. Apart from this certain health and safety regulations have to be followed for the benefits of the employees. This is also handled by the HR department.
9.       Industrial relations: Another important area of HRM is maintaining co-ordinal relations with the union members. This will help the organization to prevent strikes lockouts and ensure smooth working in the company.
4. (a) Explain the concept of Human Resource Planning. Describe the various problems in designing Human Resource Planning.                                             4+10=14
Ans:  Meaning and Definition of Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.
According to Gordon Mc Beath, “HRP is concerned with two things: Planning of manpower requirements and Planning of Manpower supplies”.
According to Beach, “HRP is a process of determining and assuming that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which meet the needs of the enterprise and which provides satisfaction for the individuals involved”
Simply HRP can be understood as the process of forecasting an organization’s future demands for and supply of the right type of people in the right number. In other words HRP is the process of determining manpower needs and formulating plans to meet these needs.
Barriers in Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planners face significant barriers while formulating an HRP. The major barriers are elaborated below:
1.       HR practitioners are perceived as experts in handling personnel matters, but are not experts in managing business. The personnel plan conceived and formulated by the HR practitioners when enmeshed with organizational plan, might make the overall strategic plan of the organization ineffective.
2.       HR information often is incompatible with other information used in strategy formulation. Strategic planning efforts have long been oriented towards financial forecasting, often to the exclusion of other types of information. Financial forecasting takes precedence over HRP.
3.       Conflict may exist between short term and long term HR needs. For example, there can be a conflict between the pressure to get the work done on time and long term needs, such as preparing people for assuming greater responsibilities. Many managers are of the belief that HR needs can be met immediately because skills are available on the market as long as wages and salaries are competitive. Therefore, long times plans are not required, short planning are only needed.
4.       There is conflict between quantitative and qualitative approaches to HRP. Some people view HRP as a number game designed to track the flow of people across the department. Others take a qualitative approach and focus on individual employee concerns such as promotion and career development. Best result can be achieved if there is a balance between the quantitative and qualitative approaches.
5.       Non-involvement of operating managers renders HRP ineffective. HRP is not strictly an HR department function. Successful planning needs a co-ordinated effort on the part of operating managers and HR personnel.
Disadvantages of human resource planning
Although human resource planning comes with so many advantages, it can also have some disadvantages, which sometimes prevent some organizations from engaging in it. Some of the disadvantages associated with human resource planning include the following:
1. The future is uncertain: The future in any country is uncertain i.e. there are political, cultural, technological changes taking place every day. This effects the employment situation. Accordingly the company may have to appoint or remove people. Therefore HRP can only be a guiding factor. We cannot rely too much on it and do every action according to it.
2. Conservative attitude of top management: Much top management adopts a conservative attitude and is not ready to make changes. The process of HRP involves either appointing. Therefore it becomes very difficult to implement HRP in organization because top management does not support the decisions of other department.
3. Problem of surplus staff: HRP gives a clear out solution for excess staff i.e. Termination, layoff, VRS,. However when certain employees are removed from company it mostly affects the psyche of the existing employee, and they start feeling insecure, stressed out and do not believe in the company. This is a limitation of HRP i.e. it does not provide alternative solution like re-training so that employee need not be removed from the company.
4. Time consuming activity: HRP collects information from all departments, regarding demand and supply of personnel. This information is collected in detail and each and every job is considered. Therefore the activity takes up a lot of time.
5. Expensive: Human resource planning can be quite expensive for some organizations to engage in. The huge cost involved in HR planning can be quite unbearable for some organizations especially for small organisation. In addition to money, businesses also invest a great deal of time towards human resource planning. Sometimes companies simply do not have the amount of time or money needed to be invested into human resource planning.
6. Unproductive activity: Another disadvantage of human resource planning is that the time and effort used in retraining employees could have been used by the employees to offer services or produce more goods. In the short run, human resource planning can sometimes be unproductive. This however, is not the case in the long run.
Or
(b) Explain the importance of Human Resource Planning in ensuring effective utilization of manpower in an organization. 14
Ans: Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.
According to Gordon Mc Beath, “HRP is concerned with two things: Planning of manpower requirements and Planning of Manpower supplies”.
According to Beach, “HRP is a process of determining and assuming that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which meet the needs of the enterprise and which provides satisfaction for the individuals involved”
Simply HRP can be understood as the process of forecasting an organization’s future demands for and supply of the right type of people in the right number. In other words HRP is the process of determining manpower needs and formulating plans to meet these needs.
Reasons for increased importance for HRP/Factors affecting HRP in the organization
Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.
1.       Employment: HRP is affected by the employment situation in the country i.e. in countries where there is greater unemployment; there may be more pressure on the company, from government to appoint more people. Similarly some company may force shortage of skilled labour and they may have to appoint people from other countries.
2.       Technical changes in the society: Technology changes at a very fast speed and new people having the required knowledge are required for the company. In some cases, company may retain existing employees and teach them the new technology and in some cases, the companies have to remove existing people and appoint new.
3.       Organizational changes: Changes take place within the organization from time to time i.e. the company diversify into new products or close down business in some areas etc. in such cases the HRP process i.e. appointing or removing people will change according to situation.
4.       Demographic changes: Demographic changes refer to things referring to age, population, composition of work force etc. A number of people retire every year. A new batch of graduates with specialization turns out every year. This can change the appointment or the removal in the company.
5.       Shortage of skill due to labour turnover: Industries having high labour turnover rate, the HRP will change constantly i.e. many new appointments will take place. This also affects the way HRP is implemented.
6.       Multicultural workforce: Workers from different countries travel to other countries in search of job. When a company plans it’s HRP it needs to take into account this factor also.
7.       Pressure groups: Company has to keep in mind certain pleasure. Groups like human rights activist, woman activist, media etc. as they are very capable for creating problems for the company, when issues concerning these groups arise, appointment or retrenchment becomes difficult.
5. (a) Describe briefly the selection procedure of employees in an industrial organization. State the difference between recruitment and selection.                                         8+6=14
Ans: Steps in Selection Process: Selection is a process of choosing right person for the right job. The selection process consists of a series of steps or techniques as follows:
1.       Job Analysis: The first step in selection process is analyzing the job. Job analysis consists of two parts : Job Description, and Job Specification. Proper job analysis helps to advertise the job properly. Accordingly, the right candidates may apply for the job, thus saving a lot of time and effort of the selectors.
2.       Advertising the Job: The next step is to advertise the job. The job can be advertised through various media. The right details about the job and the candidate must be given in the advertisement.
3.       Initial Screening: The initial screening can be done of the applications and of the applicant. Usually, a junior executive does the screening work. At this stage, the executive may check on the general personality, age, qualifications, family background of the candidate. The candidate may also be informed of salary, working conditions, etc.
4.       Application Blank: It is a prescribed form of the company which helps to obtain information about candidate in respect of social, biographic, academic, work experience, references, etc. The application blank helps to:
Ø  It provides input for the interview.
Ø  It provides basis to reject candidates if they do not meet eligibility criteria, such as experience, qualifications, etc.
5.       Tests: Various tests are conducted to judge the ability and efficiency of the candidates. The type of tests depends upon the nature of job. An important advantage of testing is that it can be administered to a large group of candidates at a time and saves time and cost. The various tests are: (a) Personality test, (b) Intelligence test,   (c) Performance test, (d) Stress test, etc.
6.       Interview: It is face to face exchange of views, ideas and opinions between the candidate and interviewer(s). There are various types of interviews such as:  (a) Panel Interview, (b) Individual Interview, (c) Group Interview, (d) Stress Interview, (e) Exit Interview.
7.       Reference Check: A candidate may be asked to provide references from those who are willing to supply or confirm about the applicant’s past life, character and experience. Reference check helps to know the personal character and family background of the candidate. It also helps to guard against possible false information supplied by candidate.
8.       Medical Check : Medical examination of the candidates is undertaken before they join the firm in order to:
a)      Find out whether the candidate is physically fit to carry out duties and responsibilities effectively,
b)      Ensure the health and safety of other employees,
c)       Find out whether the candidate is sensitive to certain work place such as in a chemical factory.
9.       Final Interview: Before making a job offer, the candidates may be subjected to one more oral interview to find out their interest in the job and their expectations. At this stage, salary and other perks may be negotiated.
10.   Job Offer: This is the most crucial and final step in selection process. A wrong selection of a candidate may make the company to suffer for a good number of years and the loss is incalculable. Company should make a very important decision to offer right job to the right person.
Difference between Recruitment and Selection
Basis
Recruitment
Selection
Meaning
It is the process of searching and Motivating candidates to apply for Job.
It is that process of staffing which rejects the unsuitable candidates and choose the suitable candidates.
Purpose
The basic purpose is to create a large pool of applicants for the jobs.
The basic purpose is to eliminate as many candidates as possible until the most suitable candidates get finalized.
Scope
Recruitment is restricted to the extent of receipt of application.
Selection includes sorting of the candidates.
Positive /Negative process
Recruitment is a positive process. As more and more applicant are sought to be attracted.
Selection is a negative process as more applicants are rejected than selected.
Criteria
It gives freedom to applicants. Any one is free to apply.
It gives very little freedom to applicants. Applicants must meet the selection criteria.
Or
(b) Briefly explain the constraints and challenges of recruitment faced by Human Resource Manager.                  14
Ans: Internal Sources: Internal source is one of the important sources of recruitment the employees already working in the organization may be more suitable for higher jobs than those recruited from outside.
Problems with internal Source of Recruitment 
a)      Discourages new ideas: Recruitment of internals leads to inbreeding and discourages new blood with new ideas from entering into the organization.
b)      Lack of suitable employee: It is possible that internal sources ultimately dry up and hence it may be difficult to find suitable persons from within the organization.
c)       Management Bias: As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play an important role in the selection of personnel.
d)      Lack of innovation: Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no innovations worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs which require original thinking, this practice is not followed.
e)      Generally for middle level managers internal source is rarely used, however for promoting blue collar workers to white collar jobs internal source is more desirable.
External Sources: Every enterprise has to use external sources for recruitment to higher positions when existing employees are not suitable. More person are needed when expansion are undertaken.
Problems with External sources of recruitment:
a)      Lowering morale of employees: Motivation, morale and loyalty of existing staff are affected, if higher level jobs are filled from external sources. It becomes a source of heart-burning and demoralisation among existing employees.
b)      Costly process: It is more expensive and time-consuming. Detailed screening is necessary as very little is known about the candidate.
c)       Expenses on training: Orientation and training are required as the employees remain unfamiliar with the organisation.
d)      High replacement cost: If new entrant fails to adjust himself to the working in the enterprise, it means yet more expenditure on looking for his replacement.

6. (a) “Training programs are helpful in avoiding personnel obsolescence.” In the light of the above statement, discuss the importance of training.                                         14
Ans: Significance/Importance or Advantages of training programs/training to the company and employees:
The following are the advantages of training program to the company:
1. Increase in efficiency of worker: Training programs can help workers to increase their efficiency levels, improve quality and thereby increase sales for the company.
2. Reduced supervision: When workers have been formally trained they need not be supervised constantly. This reduces the work load on the supervisor and allows him to concentrate on other activities in the factory.
3. Reduction in wastage: The amount of material wasted by a trained worker is negligible as compared to the amount of material wasted by an untrained worker. Due to this the company is able to reduce its cost its cost of production.
4. Less turnover of labour: One of the advantages of the training program is that it increases the confidence of employees and provides them with better career opportunities. Due to this employee generally do not leave the company. There by reducing labour turnover.
5. Training helps new employees: A person, who is totally new to the company, has no idea about its working. Training helps him to understand what is required from him and helps him to adjust to the new environment.
6. Union management relations: When employees are trained and get better career opportunities. The union starts having a possible attitude about the management. They feel that the management is genuinely interested in workers development. This improves union management relations.
The following are the advantages of training program to the employee
1. Better career opportunities: Training programs provide the latest information, develops talent and due to this the employee is in a position to get better jobs in the same company or other companies.
2. High rewards: Effective training programs result in improved performance. When performance appraisal is done excellent performance from the employee is rewarded by giving him incentives and bonus.
3. Increased motivation: Employees who have been trained are generally more confident as compared to others. Since their efforts will be rewarded in future they are very much interested in improving their performance. Therefore we can say that their motivation levels are very high.
4. Group efforts: Training programs are not only technical programs but are also conducted in areas like conflict management, group dynamics (formal and informal groups), behavioral skills, stress management etc. this enables employees to put in group effort without facing problems that groups normally face. In other words training teaches people to work in a group.
5. Promotion: People who attend training programs learn from them and improve themselves are generally considered for promotion. Thus training increases chances of promotion.
Or
(b) What do you mean by executive development? Discuss the different techniques and methods of executive development program.                                                                4+10=14
Ans: Management or Executive development
All those persons who have authority over others and are responsible for their activities & for the operations of an enterprise are managers. Any activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future requirements is management development.
According to Flippo “executive development includes the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competency in their present job but also capabilities for future managerial tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.” 
In simple words, Executive development or management development is a systematic process of learning and growth by which managerial personnel gain and apply knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights to manage the work in their organization effectively and efficiently.
Methods of training for managers/methods of managerial development/executive development:
A) On the job method: On the job method refers to training given to personnel inside the company. There are different methods of on the job training.
1. Job rotation: This method enables the company to train managerial personnel in departmental work. They are taught everything about the department. Starting from the lowest level job in the department to the highest level job. This helps when the person takes over as a manager and is required to check whether his juniors are doing the job properly or not. Every minute detail is studied.
2. Planned progression: In this method juniors are assigned a certain job of their senior in addition to their own job. The method allows the employee to slowly learn the job of his senior so that when he is promoted to his senior job it becomes very easy for him to adjust to the new situation. It also provides a chance to learn higher level jobs.
3. Coaching and counseling: Coaching refers to actually teaching a job to a junior. The senior person who is the coach actually teaches his junior regarding how the work must be handled and how decisions must be taken, the different techniques that can be used on the job, how to handle pressure. There is active participation from the senior.
Counseling refers to advising the junior employee as and when he faces problems. The counselor superior plays an advisory role and does not actively teach employees.
4. Under study: In this method of training a junior is deputed to work under a senior. He takes orders from the senior, observes the senior, attends meetings with him, learns about decision making and handling of day to day problems. The method is used when the senior is on the verge of retirement and the job will be taken over by the junior.
5. Junior board: In this method a group of junior level managers are identified and they work together in a group called junior board. They function just like the board of directors. They identify certain problem, they have to study the problem and provide suggestions. This method improves team work and decision making ability. It gives an idea about the intensity of problem faced by the company. Only promising and capable junior level managers are selected for this method.
B) Off the job training method: Off the job training refers to method of training given outside the company. The different methods adopted here are:
1. Classroom method: The classroom method is used when a group of managers have to be trained in theoretical aspects. The training involves using lectures, audio visuals, case study, role play method, group discussions etc. The method is interactive and provides very good results.
2. Simulation: Simulation involves creating atmosphere which is very similar to the original work environment. The method helps to train manager handling stress, taking immediate decisions, handling pressure on the jobs etc. An actual feel of the real job environment is given here.
3. Business games: This method involves providing a market situation to the trainee manager and asking him to provide solutions. If there are many people to be trained they can be divided into groups and each group becomes a separate team and play against each other.
4. Committee: A committee refers to a group of people who are officially appointed to look into a problem and provide solution. Trainee managers are put in the committee to identify how they study a problem and what they learn from it.
5. Conference: Conferences are conducted by various companies to have elaborate discussions on specific topics. The company which organizes the conference invites trainee manager and calls for experts in different fields to give presentation or lecture. The trainee manager can ask their doubts to these experts and understand how problems can be solved on the job.
6. Readings: This method involves encouraging the trainee manager to increase his reading related to his subject and then ask him to make a presentation on what he has learned. Information can be collected by trainee manager from books, magazines and internet etc.
7. In basket training: In this method the training is given to the manager to handle files coming in and to finish his work and take decisions within a specified time limit. The trainee manager is taught how to prioritize his work, the activities which are important for his job and how to take decisions within limited time limit.
(OLD COURSE)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
1. State whether the following statements are True or False:                                      1x8=8
a)      Compensation Management is a continuous process.                             True
b)      In internal recruitment, cost of recruitment is less.                                   False
c)       A good incentive plan should be conductive to welfare.                         True      
d)      Fair wage is that wage which must invariably be paid whether the company is big or small, makes profit or not.                                 True
e)      Job rotation is a method of job training.                        True      
f)       Planning is a managerial function of Human Resource Management.               True
g)      Training refers to philosophical and theoretical education concept.                  False
h)      Negotiation is not a part of the collective bargaining process.                              False
2. Write short notes on any four of the following:                                                             4x4=16
a)      Job enlargement.
b)      Manpower planning.
c)       Performance appraisal.
d)      Measures to prevent accident.
e)      Recruitment and selection.
f)       Placement.
3. (a) Give a brief account of managerial and operational function of a Personnel Manager.                          12
Or
(b) What is Human Resource Management? Describe briefly the significance of Human Resource Management. 4+8=12
4. (a) Explain the concept of Human Resource Planning. Describe the various problems in designing Human Resource Planning.                                                             3+8=11
Or
(b) Explain the techniques of forecasting the demand and supply of labour in Human Resource Management.       11
5. (a) Explain the constraints and challenges faced by a Human Resource Manager in recruitment of employees.                   11
Or
(b) Write a comprehensive note on recruitment process in India.                              11
6. (a) Discuss the various types of training.                           11
Or
(b) What do you mean by carrier development? Explain the stages involved in carrier planning.                                 3+8=11
7. (a) Explain the role of various kinds of working environment which affect the health of workers.          11
Or
(b) What do you mean by occupational hazards? How are these classified?                          4+7=11

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